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31 Cards in this Set

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albuterol
short acting β2-agonist
terbutaline
short acting β2-agonist
levalbuterol
short acting β2-agonist
metaproterenol
short acting β2-agonist
pirbuterol
short acting β2-agonist
salmeterol
long acting β2-agonist
formoterol
long acting β2-agonist
short acting β2-agonist
- best for acute exacerbations of asthma
- dont use chronically or you will get desensitization
long acting β2-agonist
- good for excercise-induced asthma or nocturnal Sx
- only partial agonists, so less desensitization
- typically only used w/ ICS
theophylline
- inhibits cAMP PDE, to ↑ cAMP levels for dilation
- also blocks the receptors of adenosine an inflamm mediator
theophylline administration
- best for prevention of exercise-induced and nocturnal asthma
- give orally and w/ a low theraputic index - a more specific one might be better
Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists mechanism
- cause bronchodilation by relieving intrinsic para tone
- may also lessen promotion of mucous gland secretion
Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists uses
- best for COPD
- can be used in older asthmatics w/ fixed airway obstruction
ipratropium
Muscarinic Receptor Antagonist
oxitropium
Muscarinic Receptor Antagonist
tiotropium
- Muscarinic Receptor Antagonist
- selective for MI and M3 - doesn't get M2 which, so no ACh release
Glucocorticoids uses
- best for long-term treatment
– the number and severity of bronchospasms are reduced and there are few SE’s
– they ↓ the number of inflamm cells, ↓ vascular leakage, ↓ mucous production, and ↑ the number of B2-receptors
Glucocorticoids mechanism
- regulate genes
- inhibits production of certain proinflammatory proteins
- the production of lipocortin is increased
Glucocorticoids SEs
- oropharyngeal candidiasis, hoarseness (dysphonia), and throat irritation
- potential adrenal suppression
- decreases in bone mineral density in females
beclomethasone
Glucocorticoids
triamcinolone
Glucocorticoids
flunisolide
Glucocorticoids
fluticasone
Glucocorticoids
budesonide
Glucocorticoids
Cromolyn sodium
- non-steroidal
- inhibit of mast cell degranulation
- best for maintenance of asthma, esp. the young
nedocromil
- non-steroidal
- inhibit of mast cell degranulation
- best for maintenance of asthma, esp. the young
Leukotriene inhibitors
- Leukotrienes are potent constrictors and inc mucous and influx of eos and basos
– good for maintenance
- little toxicity, but interfere w/ p450 (warfarin and theophylline)
– they work orally, but arent’ as effective as ICS for chronic
zafirlukast
Leukotriene inhibitor
montelukast
Leukotriene inhibitor
zileuton
5-lipoxygenase inhibitor - grouped w/ leukotriene inhibitors
Omalizumab
- injectable (1-2 per month) Ab against IgE
- decreases ’s IgE binding to mast cells
– $$ and effectiveness in severe asthma not fully established