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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
common S&S of pulmonary disease
chest pain
digital clubbing
altered breathing patterns
dry cough
hypersensitive airways
productive cough
purulent sputum indicates infection
non-purulent sputum indicates non-specific irritation
hemoptysis indicates pathologic condition
feature of pulmonary disease
occurs seondary to inadequate ventilation and/or lack of O2 in circulating blood
occurs mainly with diffuse, rahter tahn localized disease
orthopnea - dyspnea when lying down, secondary to fluid shifts and decreased efficiency of the respiratory muscles
chest pain
substernal, over involved lung field
may mimic angina, including readiation in neck or UE
pleural irritation may result in sharp pain that is reduced by lying on the affected side, limiting movement (autosplinting)
bluish coloring of the skin and mucous membranes
occurs secondary to reduced O2 saturation of the blood and/or reduced hemoglobin content
digital clubbing
loss of the normal angle between the nail and nail-bed on the fingers and toes
results in a club-like appearance
thought to be caused by a chronic perfusion deficit secondary to pulmonary disease
may also occur with certain cardiac, liver, and GI disorders
altered breathing patterns
change in the normal rate, depth, regularity, and effort of breathing
read 557 in GFB
Cheyne-stokes, Kussmaul, Biot, Apneustic
Pulmonary change with Aging
decreased resp muscle strength and endurance
decreases in number of elastic fibers in the lung tissue
increase chest wall stiffness
decreased in overall lung function
increase work of breathing
increase susceptibility to respiratory infections
increase complications during anesthesia
PT implications
expect reduced exercise capacities in older adults
be aware of S&S of pulmonary disease, including abnormal breathing
monitor vitals at rest and during activity, including pulse oximetry if available
educate on importance of regular aerobic exercise to reduce the age-related changes in cardiorespiratory function
acute lung tissue inflammation
symptoms (chills/fever, elevated WBC, respiratory distress, sputum changes, cloudy areas on chest x-ray)
middle age alcoholics
pneumonia etiology
pneumonia etiology virus
50% of all types
influenza A, B, C
pneumonia etiology bacteria
diplococcus pneumoniar (pneumococcal)>50%
Klebsiella pneumoniae -typically seen in middle aged alcoholics
Lobar pneumonia
self limiting
involves an entire lobe
produces an intra alveolar exudate
10 day course
pneumococcus and Klebsiella
consolidations of the affected lobe
healthy adults
pleural effusion and hydrothorax
may result in atelectasis (collapsed lung)
diffuse patchy consolidation pattern
usually bilateral
occludes small airways
longer recovery - permanent damage
elderly and infants
may result in pleurisy
staphylococcus and streptococcus
chronic bronchitis
blue bloater
progresisve disease
hyperactive airway component
high incidence in England
smoking history
progressive destruction of distal airways or alveoli(airways collapse, air trapping, difficult to get air out)
pulmonary infections
"end stage" lung disease
males have a greater incidence than females
types of emphysema
centrilobular emphysema
destruction of respiratory bronchioles
affects the central acinus
poor ventilation causes V/Q imbalance (vent/ perfusion)
cyanosis, bradypnea (depressed breathing), well nourished
cor pulmonale (right sided heart failure)
not a good exchange of gas, stagnant air, build up in residual volume
panlobular emphysema
pink puffer
affects all of the alveoli of an acinus
increased pulmonary dead space
diffusion block (passage of O2 from blood to alveoli is impaired)
compensation by tachypnea (rapid breath)
spontaneous pneumothorax-Blebs (collapsed lung)
bullae formation (bubble out, taking up space, no effective gas exchange, filled with air or puss)
pink puffer
hypertrophy in trapezius and SCM
work to get air in (use lots of E)
pursed lip breathing (breathe in through nose, blow out like blowing in straw, creates back pressure in airways to keep them open so they don't collapse)
bronchiectasis common causes
pertusis (immunised as children, whoopin cough)
measles (immunized as children)
chronic bronchitis
carcinoma of the lung
airway blockage
hemoptysis (spitting/coughing up blood)
mestasis (spreads to other parts of the body)
cystic fibrosis
early mortality (80% -first 2 decades)
recessive trait
much mucus-pancreas (malabsorption -take enzymes to help with reabsorption from the gut, intestinal blockage - life threatening)
clinical picture of cystic fibrosis
thin, asthenic
barrel chest
protruding abdomen
elevated shoulders
PT implications with cystic fibrosis
postural drainage
exercise, breathing exercies
pursed lip breathing
antibiotic and O2
laryngeal control
chronic restrictive pulmonary disease
implies respiratory depth restriction
no blockage of air flow
pulmonary volume reduction
pulmonary underinflation
tidal volume
air moved in and out in one breath
inspiratory reserve volume
air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal breath
expiratory reserve volume
air that can be forcefully expired after a normal breath
residual volume
part of air in lung that can't be exhaled, volume of air still in lungs at end of forced expiration
total lung capacity
maximum amount of air the lungs can hold when they are fully inflated
collapsed alveoli, can't ventilate certain parts of lung
lung parenchyma
fluid builds up in lungs, restricts that area from filling up with air (chronic irritation/inflammation, extensice fibrosis, silicosis, anthracosis, asbestosis)
othopaedic disorders
scoliosis, expand chest wall on one side and compressed on the other side, impaired ventilation
high incidence in African Americans
deposits of gamma globulins
increased B lymphocytes
decreased T lymphocytes