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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
K. J. Dougherty (August 1991)
Structural Reform for CC because CC students less likely to complete bachelors degree - Baccalaurete Gap
Burton R. Clark (1960)
Cooling-Out Function in Higher Education
Burton R. Clark (1980)
Cooling-Out Function Revisited
S. Karabel (1972)
Social Stratification - low class remain low class
Zwerling (XXXX)
Social Stratification - low class remain low class
Clark Kerr (1960)
California Master Plan for Higher Education and Director of the Carnegie Commission

Still needs to be a sorting process in Higher Education
Dale Parnell
The Neglected Majority

Father of Tech Prep
Arthur Cohen
Friendly critic of CC

Shift in curriculum focus - developmental education, ESL, contract training, and credentialing and certification
W. Norton Grubb (1999)
Remedial Education

Work in remedial education in school load to encourage content learning

Use different teaching methodologies (obviously the first time it didn't work)

Standardized tests along with counseling
John E. Roueche
Suzanne D. Roueche (1994)
Remedial Education

Standardized testing - only academics - there are social and economic deficiencies as well

Students should complete remedial work before moving to any college level courses

Cookbook style of coursework completion - not unique to students

Early intervention important
Mid-Twentieth Century Community College Leaders
George Zook
Jesse Bogue
Leland Medsker
George Zook
1947 - Chair of the Truman Commission

U.S. Commissioner, 1933-1950 then President, ACE

Advocated 6+4+4
Jesse Bogue
Exec Secretary - AAJC (1946-1958)

Authored "The Community College" (1950)

Gen Ed with Vocational Ed
Find the Right Teachers
Student guidance
Funding (local vs state)
Leland Medsker
Mr. Junior College

"The Junior College: Progress and Prospects" (1960) First comprehensive study
Thomas Lewis Hardin

History of the CC
Functionalist Advocates

Defend the CC
Safety Valve for Universities
Cohen & Brawer
Edmund Gleazer
Leland Medsker
Marxist Instrumentalist Critics

Critical of CC
Maintain Class Stratification
Critical of Occupational Ed
Institutionalist Critics

Relegated to lower level ed
Critical of Voc Ed
Criticize leadership in CC
State Relative Autonomy

CC shaped by government to serve own needs
How should CC change according to Zwerling?
Raise student awareness
How should CC change according to Dougherty?
Convert 2 yr to 4 yr colleges
How should CC change according to Astin?
Equate funding between 2 yr and 4 yr
How should CC change according to Clowes and Levin?
De-emphasize bachelors and focus on what CC does well - voc education
How should CC change according to Eaton?
Abandon open access - selective admission
How should CC change according to Cohen & Brawer, and Adelman?
Shift the paradigm: focus on individual not group mobility
How should CC change according to Cohen & Brawer?
Get real - accept the allocative function and strive to enhance learning
Edmund Gleazer (1980s)
Vision, Value, and Vitality
Core - Higher Ed and Tradition

Outer edge - more innovation and creativity (cc)
Deegan & Tillery (1985)
Generations of CC
1. before 1930 - Grades 13 and 14
2. 1930-1950 - Junior College
3. 1950-1970 - Community College - open door policy
4. 1970-1980 - Comprehensive CC added Voc Ed
5. 1980-1990 - Voc Ed, Remedial Ed, partners with K-12, and growth
Patricia Cross (1985)
Missions and Priorities for 5th Generation CC
1. Comprehensive
2. Vertical
3. Horizontal
4. Integrated
5. Remedial
Cohen & Brawer (2003)
Researchers and Transfer Issues
Barbara Townsend
Cohen & Sanchez (1997)
Cohen & Ignash (1992)
Townsend & Dever (1999)
Researchers and Remedialization
McGrath & Spear (1991)
Grubb (1994)
The Roueche's (1992)
Leaders of the Formative Period of CC
William Rainey Harper
David Starr Jordan
Alexis F. Lange
Perceptions of the Leaders of the Formative Period of CC
Harper - perceptions of elitism
Jordan - manipulating the social structure
Lange - shall be a means to progress through the education system with the greatest effic for the greatest number (social effic)
William Rainey Harper
Started first JC in Joliet in 1901
Worked in conjunction with Stanley Brown (HS superintendent)
"Father of the Junior College"