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38 Cards in this Set

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 Variables that take on an infinite number of values. continuous variable Variables with a finite number of distinct values. Discrete Variable Unidimensional or cumulative scale in which the researcher develops a small number of items(four to seven) that relate to one concept and then arranges them so that endorsement of one item means an endorsement of items below it. guttman scale Measures are continuous variables in which the 0 point is arbitrary. interval Refers to the properties and meaning of the number assigned to an observation. Level of Measurement Type of scale most frequently scored on a 5 to 7 point range, indicating the subject’s level of positive or negative response to an item. Likert-type scale Translation of observations into numbers. measurement Numbers used to name attributes of a variable. nominal Numerical values that assign an order to a set of observations. ordinal (Informant) Involves using a family member, health professional, or an individual familiar with the targeted person to rate that person on the phenomenon of interest using a standard measure. proxy Errors that occur by chance. random error Numbers that have all the characteristics of interval numbers but also have an absolute 0 point. ratio Stability of a research design. reliability Tools for the quantitative measurement of the degree to which individuals possess a specific attribute or trait. scales Scaling technique in which the researcher develops a series of opposite or mutually exclusive constructs that ask the respondent to give a judgment about something along an ordered dimension , usually of 7 points. Semantic differential scale Systematic bias or an error that occurs consistently with an instrument; impacts the extent to which an instrument is valid or represents the underlying construct or concept. Also known as nonrandom error. systematic error Extent to which an investigator’s findings are accurate or reflect the underlying purpose of the study. validity Path of a person’s thinking and action processes that enables others to follow the logic and manner in which knowledge was developed. audit trial Naturalistic recordings written by the investigator that are composed of two components- (1)Recordings of events, observations, and occurrences and (2) recordings of the investigators own impressions of events, feelings, hunches, and expectations. field notes Naturalistic design that uses a small group process to facilitate data collection and analysis. focus group Naturalistic action processes of entering the context of the field study. gaining access One of the principal characteristics of most forms of naturalistic inquiry in which the investigator becomes fully immersed in the data collection and analytical process. Investigator involvement Type of naturalistic inquiry concerned with eliciting life experiences and with how individual interpret and attribute meanings to these experiences. life history Technique whereby the investigator “checks out” his or her assumptions with informants. member checking Naturalistic data collection strategy in which the researcher takes part in the context under scrutiny. participant observation Use of more than one investigator as a participant in the analytical process, followed by reflection on other possible competing interpretations of the data. peer debriefing Process of self-examination. reflexivity Represents a problem in your understanding and is the point at which you learn your assumptions are not adequate to explain how things are learning. rich point Point at which an investigator has obtained sufficient information from which to obtain an understanding of the phenomena. saturation Use of multiple strategies or methods as a means to strengthen the credibility of an investigator’s findings related to the phenomena under study; also known as crystallization. triangulation Record of variable names for each variable in experimental type research; record of categories, codes, and line placement in nat inquiry code book Procedures used to summarize raw data into more compact and interpretable forms. data reduction Set of actions necessary to develop and maintain the raw data and statistical control files that are developed in exp-type studies. database management Particular approach to coding segments of narrative that is used in naturalistic forms of analysis; investigator indicates personal notations as to emerging hypotheses and subsequent directions for analysis. memoing Set of words, derived from stories, interviews, written journals, and other written documents which forms the data set in naturalistic inquiry. narrative Set of numbers in a computer file that is entered from a questionnaire or other data collection instrument used exp-type research; its creation is the first action step in the process of preparing data for statistical analysis. raw data file narrative derived from an audiotape or a video image of an interview with an individual or a group. transcription Applied to each variable in a computer file; follows certain conventions that are based on the particular statistical software used by the investigator. variable label