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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
null hypotheses
-two variables are NOT related
alternative hypotheses
-two variables ARE related
-one may cause the other
qualitative data
-verbal descriptions of attributes of events

*words
quantitative data
-numerical descrpitions of attributes of events

*numbers
validity
-the degree to which an instruments measures what it is supposed to measure
types of validity
-predictive/criterion
-concurrent
-construct
-content
Predictive/criterion validity
-the accuracy in which a test predicts future performance on a related task
-ex: gre scores may predict performance in gradschool
concurrent validity
- the extent that a new test correllates with an established test
construct validity
- the degree to which test scores are consistent with theoretical constructs or concepts
content validity
- examines all test items to ensure if they measure the full range of skill being tested
reliability
- consistency in which the same event is measured repeatedly
- expressed in correlational coeeficient
test retest relaibility
- consistency of measures when the same test is given 2x to the same person
alternate form reliability
- consisitency of 2 parralel forms of the same test
- ex EVT-2 form A and form B
split-half reliability
- responses on the 1st 1/2 of test are correlated with responses on 2nd 1/2
intERobserver intERjudge relaibility
- the extent to which 2 or more observers agree in measuring an event
intRAobserver-intRAjudge relaibility
-extent that the smae observer repeatedly measures the same event
independent variable
- directly manipulated by the experimenter (cause)

ex: amount of noise in enviorment
dependent variable
- -the vairable that is affected by manipulation of the independent variable (effect)

*ex: amount of difficulty hearing speech
*all disorders are DV's
types of experimental designs in SLP
-group & single-subject
group designs-experimental
-consists of 2 or more groups, one that recieves tx one that doesn't
-groups are formed using randomination or matching
group designs-nonexperimental
- only 1 group
-research is observational or a case study
pretest-posttest control group design
-measures effects of 1 tx
multigroup pretest-posttest design
-measures the effects of 2 or more tx's

ex: which tx is more effective
advantages of group experiemtnla designs
- useful in isolating cause/effect realtionship
-strong internal validity (the manipulation of the Independent V. caused the change)
disadvantages of group experimental designs
- not always possible to randomly select particpiants
-may not allow extension of study to indevidual clients
single subject design
-establish caue-effect relationships based on individual performance
-allow extensive and intensive study of individual subjects
-do NOT involve comparisons based on group performance
-may have more than 1 participant, but results are not averaged they are resocred individually
2 types of single subject design studies
-ABA &ABAB

- multiple baseline
ABA
-basic single subject design
- A baseline, B tx, A withdrawal
ABAB
-provides beneift to participant unlike ABA design
-A baseline, B tx, A withdrawal, B tx reinstated
multiple baseline design
- subject design which avoids tx withdrawal phase
- 3 types: across subjects, across settings, across behaviors
across subjects MB design
- sevral participants who are taught 1 or more behvior sequentailly
-shows that only behaviors of treated participant change
across settings MB design
-behaior is taught sequentially in different settings
-demonstrates that behavior changhed only in treated setting
across behaviors MB design
- several behaviors are sequentially taught
- shows that only treated behaviors change