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54 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
Validity

truth and legitimacy


Threats to validity

barriers between us and the truth


Construct validity

labeling


Measurement validity

accuracy of measurement


Internal Validity

how well the relationship found in the study reflects the truth of the sample of participants


external validity

how well the results derived from a sample reflect the truth about the target population


history

a threat to external and internal validity; events that occur during the time of the study


attrition

participants leaving the study before the study was completed


regression to the mean

extreme versions of phenomenon tend to become less extremeover time; internal validity


maturation

participants matured during the study; internal validity


Selection

some people may influence their chances of being selected.


control

any design feature or procedures used to counteract the threats to validity


control is directed to what 3 aspects of a study

1. Sampling  on that is true/valid of the target population
2. Assignment  test the efficacy of a new form of treatment 3. Measurement 

contraint

the amount of autonomy a participant has during the course of of the study


designs

the blueprint of a study


Quasiexperimental

test/describe presumed cause and effect relationships between naturally occurring phenomena.


Experimental

test/describe presumed cause and effect relationships between manipulated variables and outcomes


Random Sampling

how your draw the people for your study; threat to external validity


Random Assignment

how you randomly assigned your selection to groups; threat to internal validity


Scale of Measurement

No Oils In Rivers


Nominal Scale

responses are names or categories; hard to make comparisons; is not in order


Ordinal Scale

ordered; responses ranged from least to most satisfied; allows comparisons; fail to capture important info


Interval

order is numerical; intervals are on a scale; zero does not mean the absence of something


Ratio

order is numerical; intervals are on a scale; sero means the absent of something


Type 1 error

rejected the null hypothesis when it was true; pvalue is set in advanced; not affected by sample size


alpha level

cut off used to judge the pvalue


Type 2 error

failed to reject the null hypothesis tested when a given alternative hypothesis was true


pvalue

used to determine if there is a difference; the probability of wrongly rejecting the null hypothesis if is in fact true


small pvalues

suggests that the null hypothesis is unlikely to be true; p<.05 will reject the null hypothesis


high pvalues

p>.05 we fail to reject the null hypothesis *The difference is significantly significant


central tendency

estimate of the center of a distribution of values


mean

the average


mode

the number that you see the most


median

the number in the middle


standard deviation

desribes how the standard amount variables differ from the mean; variability


frequency distribution

variability


nominal

mode; frequency; bar chart and stem & leaf plot


ordinal

mode; range (variance); stem & leaf plot


interval

mean, median, and mode; variance (range) or standard deviation; histogram, boxplot or stem & leaf plot


ratio

mean, median, and mode; variance (range) or standard deviation; histogram, boxplot or stem & leaf plot


central tendency

estimate of the center of a distribution of values


mean

the average


mode

the number that you see the most


median

the number in the middle


standard deviation

desribes how the standard amount variables differ from the mean; variability


frequency distribution

variability


nominal

mode; frequency; bar chart and stem & leaf plot


ordinal

mode; range (variance); stem & leaf plot


interval

mean, median, and mode; variance (range) or standard deviation; histogram, boxplot or stem & leaf plot


ratio

mean, median, and mode; variance (range) or standard deviation; histogram, boxplot or stem & leaf plot


Ttest

assesses whether the mean of two groups are statistically different from each other (interval and ratio variable); group difference


ANOVA

same as ttest but with more than 2 groups; measures the difference between control and experimental group simultaneously; measures the different correlations; employ a nominal scale and predict a interval and ratio outcome


correlation

indicates the strength and direction of a linear relationship between two random variables; linear association


chitest

use to test the association between two or more nominal scale variables; no cause and effect
