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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Validity
truth and legitimacy
Threats to validity
barriers between us and the truth
Construct validity
labeling
Measurement validity
accuracy of measurement
Internal Validity
how well the relationship found in the study reflects the truth of the sample of participants
external validity
how well the results derived from a sample reflect the truth about the target population
history
a threat to external and internal validity; events that occur during the time of the study
attrition
participants leaving the study before the study was completed
regression to the mean
extreme versions of phenomenon tend to become less extremeover time; internal validity
maturation
participants matured during the study; internal validity
Selection
some people may influence their chances of being selected.
control
any design feature or procedures used to counteract the threats to validity
control is directed to what 3 aspects of a study
1. Sampling - on that is true/valid of the target population
2. Assignment - test the efficacy of a new form of treatment
3. Measurement
contraint
the amount of autonomy a participant has during the course of of the study
designs
the blueprint of a study
Quasi-experimental
test/describe presumed cause and effect relationships between naturally occurring phenomena.
Experimental
test/describe presumed cause and effect relationships between manipulated variables and outcomes
Random Sampling
how your draw the people for your study; threat to external validity
Random Assignment
how you randomly assigned your selection to groups; threat to internal validity
Scale of Measurement
No Oils In Rivers
Nominal Scale
responses are names or categories; hard to make comparisons; is not in order
Ordinal Scale
ordered; responses ranged from least to most satisfied; allows comparisons; fail to capture important info
Interval
order is numerical; intervals are on a scale; zero does not mean the absence of something
Ratio
order is numerical; intervals are on a scale; sero means the absent of something
Type 1 error
rejected the null hypothesis when it was true; p-value is set in advanced; not affected by sample size
alpha level
cut off used to judge the p-value
Type 2 error
failed to reject the null hypothesis tested when a given alternative hypothesis was true
p-value
used to determine if there is a difference; the probability of wrongly rejecting the null hypothesis if is in fact true
small p-values
suggests that the null hypothesis is unlikely to be true; p<.05 will reject the null hypothesis
high p-values
p>.05 we fail to reject the null hypothesis *The difference is significantly significant
central tendency
estimate of the center of a distribution of values
mean
the average
mode
the number that you see the most
median
the number in the middle
standard deviation
desribes how the standard amount variables differ from the mean; variability
frequency distribution
variability
nominal
mode; frequency; bar chart and stem & leaf plot
ordinal
mode; range (variance); stem & leaf plot
interval
mean, median, and mode; variance (range) or standard deviation; histogram, boxplot or stem & leaf plot
ratio
mean, median, and mode; variance (range) or standard deviation; histogram, boxplot or stem & leaf plot
central tendency
estimate of the center of a distribution of values
mean
the average
mode
the number that you see the most
median
the number in the middle
standard deviation
desribes how the standard amount variables differ from the mean; variability
frequency distribution
variability
nominal
mode; frequency; bar chart and stem & leaf plot
ordinal
mode; range (variance); stem & leaf plot
interval
mean, median, and mode; variance (range) or standard deviation; histogram, boxplot or stem & leaf plot
ratio
mean, median, and mode; variance (range) or standard deviation; histogram, boxplot or stem & leaf plot
T-test
assesses whether the mean of two groups are statistically different from each other (interval and ratio variable); group difference
ANOVA
same as t-test but with more than 2 groups; measures the difference between control and experimental group simultaneously; measures the different correlations; employ a nominal scale and predict a interval and ratio outcome
correlation
indicates the strength and direction of a linear relationship between two random variables; linear association
chi-test
use to test the association between two or more nominal scale variables; no cause and effect