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23 Cards in this Set

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metaphysical explanations
explanations that violate what scientists now consider to be established physical laws because they attribute behavior/experiences to non-physical forces
animism
the belief that natural phenomena are alive and influence behavior
mythological and religious systems
make the assumption that deities play an important role in human behavior, share assumption with animism that nonphysical forces determine a lot of human behavior
astrology
assumes that human behavior directed by celestial bodies, adopts some scientific practices in attempting to explain human behavior
philosophy
study of knowledge, behavior, and the nature of reality by making use of logic, intuition, and empirical observations
positivism
theory of August Comte that says that knowledge and human behavior should be based only on observations that can be made with absolute certainty
empricism
idea that the best way to learn about the world is to make observations
physiology
study of the functions and interrelations between different parts of the brain and body
psychology
scientific study of human behavior
canons
fundamental principles that are more or less accepted on faith
determinism
doctrine that the universe is orderly and that all events have meaningful, systematic causes
base-rate information
information about the proportion of things in a target population
illusory correlation
common judgemental bias where people infer correlation/connection between group membership and the likelihood of engaging in positive/negative behavior
theory
statement about the causal relation between two or more variables
parsimony
we should be extremely frugal in developing/choosing btw theories by steering away from unecessary concepts
Occam's razor
principle of parsimony that states that it is intellectually inappropriate to make more assumptions than you absolutely have to
Lord Morgan's Canon
idea that it is inappropriate to explain animal behs in terms of higher mental functioning when they can be explained by simple mental activities i.e. conditioned associations
4 canons of psychology
(PSYCH DEPT)
determinism, empiricism, parsimony, and testability
testability
assumption that scientific theories should be confirmable/disconfirmable via available research techniques
falsifiability
idea that scientists should go a step beyond putting their theories to some kind of test by actively seeking out test that could prove their theories wrong
logical positivism
belief that science and philosophy should be based soley on things that can be observed with absolute certainty
operational definitions
definitions of theoretical constructs that are stated in terms of concrete, observable procedures
4 ways of knowing
intuition, logic, authority, observation