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67 Cards in this Set
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Descriptive Analysis

The elementary transformation of raw data in a way that describes the basic characteristics such as central tendency, distribution and variability

Histogram

A graphical way of showing a frequency distribution in which the height of a bar corresponds to the observed frequency of the category

Tabulation

The orderly arrangement of data in a table or other summary format showing the number of response to each response category; tallying

Frequency Table

A table showing the different ways respondents answered a question

CrossTabulation

The appropriate technique for addressing research questions involving relationships among multiple lessthan interval variables; results in a combined frequency table displaying one variable in rows and another in columns

Contingency Table

A data matrix that displays the frequency of some combination of possible responses to multiple variables; crosstabulation results

Marginals

Row and column totals in a contingency table, which are shown in its margins

Statistical Base

The number of respondents or observations (in a row or column) used as a basis for computing percentages

Elaboration Analysis

An analysis of the basic crosstabulation for each level of a variable not previously considered, such as subgroups of the sample

Moderator Variable

A third variable that changes the nature of a relationship between the original independent and dependent variables

Quadrant Analysis

An extension of crosstabulation in which responses to two ratingscale questions are plotted in four quadrants of twodimensional table

ImportancePerformance Analysis

Another name for quadrant analysis

Data Transformation

Process of changing the data from their original form to a format suitable for performing a data analysis addressing research objectives

Median Split

Dividing a data set into two categories by replacing respondents below the median in one category and respondents about the median in another

Index Numbers

Scores or observations recalibrated to indicate how they relate to a base number

Box and Whisker Plots

Graphic representations of central tendencies, percentiles, variabilities, and the shapes of frequency distributions

Interquartile Range

A measure of variability

Outlier

A value that lies outside the normal range of data

Interpretation

The process of drawing inferences from the analysis results

Descriptive Analysis

Transforming and summarizing raw data in to a form that makes it easy to grasp, understand and interpret

The most common forms of summary are 

Calculating measures of central tendency such as averages and medians, constructing frequency distributions and percentage or probability distributions, and graphically depicting data in the form of charts  pie, bar, line, etc

Scale

Any series of indicators arranged progressively according to value or magnitude used to categorize or quantify objects of events

Nominal Scale

numbers, letters or labels assigned to objects for identification or classification

Ordinal Scale

A scale that rank orders objects or events according to magnitude

Interval Scale

A scale in which the units have equal magnitude but which lack a true zero

Ratio Scales

A scale having units of equal magnitude and a true zero

Type of Descriptive Analysis for Nominal Scale

Frequency table, proportion, mode

Type of Descriptive Analysis for Ordinal Scale

Rank order, median, percentile

Type of Descriptive Analysis for Interval Scales

Arithmetic mean

Type of Descriptive Analysis for Ratio Scales

Index number, geometric mean, harmonic mean

Geometric Mean

nth root of the product of n numbers

Harmonic Mean

A number h such that, if a<b the ratio ha/bh = a/b where h=2ab/a +b

Methods of Descriptive Analysis

1) Simple Tabulation
2) Percentage 3) Frequency Distribution 4) Cumulative Percentages 5) Central Tendency 6) CrossTabulation 7) Contingency Tale 8) Rule of Thumb for Choosing Base 9) Elaboration Analysis 10) Spurious Relationship 11) Quadrant Analysis 
Simple Tabulation

Counting the number of different responses to a question and arranging them in a frequency distribution

Percentage

A Part of a whole expressed in hundredth

Frequency Distribution

A set of data arranged by summarizing the number or times a particular value of a variable occurs

Cumulative Percentages

Successively summing percentages in a frequency distribution

Central Tendency

mean, median, mode

CrossTabulation

A joint frequency distribution of tow or more sets of variables
*Allows comparisons between groups *Enables inspection of relationships between variables 
Contingency Table

Results of a crosstabulaion of two variables, such as answers to two survey questions

Rule of Thumb for Choosing Base

If one variable is identified as the "independent" variable, the percentages in a cross tabulation should be completed in the direction of the "independent" variable

Elaboration Analysis

An analysis of a crosstabulation that introduces a third variable not previously considered, such as marital status

Spurious Relationship

An apparent relationship between two variables that is not authentic, but only appearsso beacuse an elaboration analysis with a third variable has not been conducted

Quadrant Analysis

A type of multiple crosstabulation using two rating scale questions and importance or satisfaction of/with the product feature with respect to a number of product or service features or attributes

Data Transformation

Process of changing data from their original form to a format better suited to the researcher's purposes

Substitue Question

Asking consumers for the year of their birth is less offensive than "how old are you?"

Collapsing Categories

If there are two few responses on a 1 to 5 scale, reducing the categories from three to five

Summating Data

Summating the Likert Scale responses from a series of responses into single value

Index Number

Data summary values are based on some base period as in the example below which converts hours of TV viewing for the different size households into an index number with 100 as the base

Summated Rank Order

Multiplying Frequency Times order for all respondents to get a summated rank order

Tabular Presentation

Organizing data in a report in table form to provide reader with ease of understanding and grasp of essential results

Table Number

Allows for simple reference from the text to the table

Title

Indicates succinctly and clearly the contents of the table
*The table number and accompanying title should be presented in a consistent manner 
Bannerheads (boxheads)

Captions identifying the contents of table columns

Stubheads

Captions identifying the contents of the table rows

Footnotes

show below the table supplementary explanation of table contents

Source

Also show below the table acknowledgement of any secondary sources of the data

Chart Presentation

Presenting data in the form of a chart (bar, line, pie, etc.) when the value of a chart is additive in understanding the data. Should be used judicially for understanding  not for aesthetic appeal or impressive effect

Figure number

Figures should be numbered in a series separate from table numbers

Title

Indicates the content of the chart; show figure list right after table list

Explanatory Legends

Figures should contain sufficient explanatory legend to enable the reader to quickly grasp the meaning of the chart without reference to the text itself

Footnotes

Below the figure show a brief footnote needed that explains the figure's contents

Source

Acknowledge any secondary sources

Computer Maps

computer generated maps that portray a variable, such as demographic dat in two or three dimension

Box and Whisker Plot

Graphic Device that represents central tendencies, percentiles, variability and frequency distribution

Outlier

A value that lies outside the range of a set of data

Interpretation

Making inferences and drawing conclusions about the meaning and implications of a research study
