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67 Cards in this Set

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Descriptive Analysis
The elementary transformation of raw data in a way that describes the basic characteristics such as central tendency, distribution and variability
Histogram
A graphical way of showing a frequency distribution in which the height of a bar corresponds to the observed frequency of the category
Tabulation
The orderly arrangement of data in a table or other summary format showing the number of response to each response category; tallying
Frequency Table
A table showing the different ways respondents answered a question
Cross-Tabulation
The appropriate technique for addressing research questions involving relationships among multiple less-than interval variables; results in a combined frequency table displaying one variable in rows and another in columns
Contingency Table
A data matrix that displays the frequency of some combination of possible responses to multiple variables; cross-tabulation results
Marginals
Row and column totals in a contingency table, which are shown in its margins
Statistical Base
The number of respondents or observations (in a row or column) used as a basis for computing percentages
Elaboration Analysis
An analysis of the basic cross-tabulation for each level of a variable not previously considered, such as subgroups of the sample
Moderator Variable
A third variable that changes the nature of a relationship between the original independent and dependent variables
Quadrant Analysis
An extension of cross-tabulation in which responses to two rating-scale questions are plotted in four quadrants of two-dimensional table
Importance-Performance Analysis
Another name for quadrant analysis
Data Transformation
Process of changing the data from their original form to a format suitable for performing a data analysis addressing research objectives
Median Split
Dividing a data set into two categories by replacing respondents below the median in one category and respondents about the median in another
Index Numbers
Scores or observations re-calibrated to indicate how they relate to a base number
Box and Whisker Plots
Graphic representations of central tendencies, percentiles, variabilities, and the shapes of frequency distributions
Interquartile Range
A measure of variability
Outlier
A value that lies outside the normal range of data
Interpretation
The process of drawing inferences from the analysis results
Descriptive Analysis
Transforming and summarizing raw data in to a form that makes it easy to grasp, understand and interpret
The most common forms of summary are -
Calculating measures of central tendency such as averages and medians, constructing frequency distributions and percentage or probability distributions, and graphically depicting data in the form of charts - pie, bar, line, etc
Scale
Any series of indicators arranged progressively according to value or magnitude used to categorize or quantify objects of events
Nominal Scale
numbers, letters or labels assigned to objects for identification or classification
Ordinal Scale
A scale that rank orders objects or events according to magnitude
Interval Scale
A scale in which the units have equal magnitude but which lack a true zero
Ratio Scales
A scale having units of equal magnitude and a true zero
Type of Descriptive Analysis for Nominal Scale
Frequency table, proportion, mode
Type of Descriptive Analysis for Ordinal Scale
Rank order, median, percentile
Type of Descriptive Analysis for Interval Scales
Arithmetic mean
Type of Descriptive Analysis for Ratio Scales
Index number, geometric mean, harmonic mean
Geometric Mean
n-th root of the product of n numbers
Harmonic Mean
A number h such that, if a<b the ratio h-a/b-h = a/b where h=2ab/a +b
Methods of Descriptive Analysis
1) Simple Tabulation
2) Percentage
3) Frequency Distribution
4) Cumulative Percentages
5) Central Tendency
6) Cross-Tabulation
7) Contingency Tale
8) Rule of Thumb for Choosing Base
9) Elaboration Analysis
10) Spurious Relationship
11) Quadrant Analysis
Simple Tabulation
Counting the number of different responses to a question and arranging them in a frequency distribution
Percentage
A Part of a whole expressed in hundredth
Frequency Distribution
A set of data arranged by summarizing the number or times a particular value of a variable occurs
Cumulative Percentages
Successively summing percentages in a frequency distribution
Central Tendency
mean, median, mode
Cross-Tabulation
A joint frequency distribution of tow or more sets of variables

*Allows comparisons between groups
*Enables inspection of relationships between variables
Contingency Table
Results of a cross-tabulaion of two variables, such as answers to two survey questions
Rule of Thumb for Choosing Base
If one variable is identified as the "independent" variable, the percentages in a cross tabulation should be completed in the direction of the "independent" variable
Elaboration Analysis
An analysis of a cross-tabulation that introduces a third variable not previously considered, such as marital status
Spurious Relationship
An apparent relationship between two variables that is not authentic, but only appearsso beacuse an elaboration analysis with a third variable has not been conducted
Quadrant Analysis
A type of multiple cross-tabulation using two rating scale questions and importance or satisfaction of/with the product feature with respect to a number of product or service features or attributes
Data Transformation
Process of changing data from their original form to a format better suited to the researcher's purposes
Substitue Question
Asking consumers for the year of their birth is less offensive than "how old are you?"
Collapsing Categories
If there are two few responses on a 1 to 5 scale, reducing the categories from three to five
Summating Data
Summating the Likert Scale responses from a series of responses into single value
Index Number
Data summary values are based on some base period as in the example below which converts hours of TV viewing for the different size households into an index number with 100 as the base
Summated Rank Order
Multiplying Frequency Times order for all respondents to get a summated rank order
Tabular Presentation
Organizing data in a report in table form to provide reader with ease of understanding and grasp of essential results
Table Number
Allows for simple reference from the text to the table
Title
Indicates succinctly and clearly the contents of the table

*The table number and accompanying title should be presented in a consistent manner
Bannerheads (boxheads)
Captions identifying the contents of table columns
Stubheads
Captions identifying the contents of the table rows
Footnotes
show below the table supplementary explanation of table contents
Source
Also show below the table acknowledgement of any secondary sources of the data
Chart Presentation
Presenting data in the form of a chart (bar, line, pie, etc.) when the value of a chart is additive in understanding the data. Should be used judicially for understanding -- not for aesthetic appeal or impressive effect
Figure number
Figures should be numbered in a series separate from table numbers
Title
Indicates the content of the chart; show figure list right after table list
Explanatory Legends
Figures should contain sufficient explanatory legend to enable the reader to quickly grasp the meaning of the chart without reference to the text itself
Footnotes
Below the figure show a brief footnote needed that explains the figure's contents
Source
Acknowledge any secondary sources
Computer Maps
computer generated maps that portray a variable, such as demographic dat in two or three dimension
Box and Whisker Plot
Graphic Device that represents central tendencies, percentiles, variability and frequency distribution
Outlier
A value that lies outside the range of a set of data
Interpretation
Making inferences and drawing conclusions about the meaning and implications of a research study