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50 Cards in this Set

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artifact
A specific threat to validity, or a confounded aspect of the scientist's observations
between-subject design
Statistical designs in which the sampling units are exposed to one treatment each
blind experimenters
Experimenters who are unaware of which participants recieve the experimental and control treatments
confounded
Mixed or confused
counterbalancing
A procedure in which some subjects recieve Treatment A before Treatment B, and the others recieve B before A.
covariation
The principle that, in order to demonstrate causation, what is labeled as the "cause" should be shown to be positively correlated with what is labeled as the "effect"
crossed design
Another name for the basic within-subjects design, because the subjects can be said to be corssed by "treatment" conditions.
demand characteristics
The mixture of various hints and cues that govern the participant's perception of (a) hir or her role as research subject and (b) the experimenter's hypothesis.
double-blind procedures
Procedures in which niether the experimenter nor the participants know who has been assigned to the experimental control group.
efficient cause
The propelling or instigating condition (i.e., the X that sets in motion or alters Y).
evaluation apprenhension
The experience of feeling anxious about being negatively evaluated or not positvely evaluated.
expectancy control design
An experimental design in which the expectancy variable operates seperately from the independent variable of interst.
experimental group
A group or condition in which the subjects undergo a manipulation or an intervention.
experimenter expectancy effect
An experimentter-related artifact that results when the hypothesis held by the experimenter leads unintentionally to behavior toward the subjects that, in turn, increases the likelihood that the hypothesis will be confirmed.
factorial design
Research design with more than one factor and two or more levels of each factor.
final cause
The end goal toward which a person or thing presumably tends to strive.
formal cause
The implicit form or meaning of something.
good subject
Research participant who seeks to provide responses that will validate the experimenter's hypothesis.
history
A plausible threat to internal validity when an event or incident that takes place between the premeasurment and the postmeasurement contaminates the results of research not employing randomization.
instrumentation
A plausible threat to internal validity that occurs when changes in the measuring instrument (e.g., deterioration of the instrument) bias the result of research not using randomization.
internal validity
The degree of validity of statements made about whther X causes Y.
Latin square design
A specific repeated measures design with built-in counterbalancing.
matching
Design methon in which the sampling units are paired on certain relevant variables.
material cause
The substance cause out of which something is made.
maturation
A plausible threat to internal validity that occurs when results not using randomization are contaminated by the participants' having grown, for instance, older, wiser, stronger, or more experienced between the pretest and the postest.
method of agreement
If X, then Y-a statement that implies that X is a sufficient condition of Y.
method of difference
If not-X, then not-Y a statement that implies that X is a necessare condition of Y.
Mill's methods
Logical methods (or propositions) popularized by the 19th-century English philosopher J.S. Mill, exemplified by the metho of agreement and the method of difference.
necessary condition
A requisite or essential condition.
nested design
Another name for the basic between-subjects design, because the subjects are "nested" within their own treatment conditions.
one-group pre-post design
A preexperimental design in which the reactions of only one goup of subjects are measured before and after exposure to the treatment.
one-shot case study
A preexperimental design in which the reactions of only one group of subjects are measured after the event or treatment has occured.
placebo
The "healing" effects of inert substances or nonspecific treatments.
placebo control group
A control group that recieves a placebo.
placebo effect
The "healing" effects of inert substances or nonspecific treatment.
preexperimental designs
Research designs in which there is such a total absence of control that they are of minimal value in establishing causlity.
pretest sensitization
The confounding of pretesting and X, the independent variable of interest.
pretest-treatment interaction
The statistical evaluation of pretest sensitization.
quasi-control subjects
Research participants who are asked to reflect on the context in which an excperiment is conducted and to speculate on the ways in which the context may influence their own and other subjects' behaviors.
random assignment
A synonym for randomization.
randomization
Random allocation of sampling units to treatment conditions.
randomized experiments
Experimental designs that use randomizations.
repeated measures design
Statistical design in which the sampling units generate two or more measurments.
sampling units
The elements that make up the sample.
selection
A plausible threat to the internal validity of research not using randomization when the kinds of research subjects are selected for one treatment group are different from those selected from another group.
Solomon design
A four-group experimental design developed by R.L. Solomon as a means of assessing pretest sensitization effects without contamination by pretesting.
sufficint condition
A condition that is adequate to bring about some effect or result.
temporal precedence
The principle that what is labeled as the "cause" must be shown to have occured before the "effect."
treatments
The procedures or conditions of an experiemnt.
within-subjects design
Statistical design in which the sampling units (e.g., the research participants) generate two or more measurements.