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38 Cards in this Set

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hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have forseen it (I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)
curiosity
underlying science, apssion to explore and understand without misleading or being mislead
cuious skepticism
scientists persistently ask: what do you mean? how do you know?--all about evidence
critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
scientific method
make observations, form theories, and refine theories in light of new observations
hypothesis
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
operational definition
a statememnt of procedures (operations) used to define research variables. for example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelliegence test measures
replication
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see wheter the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
case study
an observation technique in which one person is stidied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
-shows us what can happen
survey
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our belifs and behaviors
representative case
extend point to everyday thinking, and generalize from smaples we observe, especially vivid cases
population
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study.
random samples
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance on inclusion
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situation whithout tying to mainpulate and control the situation
correlate
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well eiher factor predcts the other
corelation coefficient
mathematical expression of the relationship, raning from -1 to +1
scatter plots
a graphec cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of 2 variables.. the slope of the points sggests the direction of the relationship between two variables. the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter = high correlation)
illusionary correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists
experiment
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more fators (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behaavior or mental process (the dependent variable) by random assignment of participants, the experimentor aims to control other relevant factors
placebo
pseudotreatment
double blind procedure
an experimental procedure in which both the research particiants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have recieved the treatment or a placebo.
placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent
experimental condition
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, this is, to one version of the independent variable
control condition
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluation of the effect of the treatment
random assignment
assigning participants to expermnetal and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexsisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulted; the variable whose effct is being studied- precise drug dosage and timing in study
dependent variable
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable-questions that assessed the men's responses
measure of central tendency
a single socre that represesnts a whole set of scores
mode
the frequently occurring score in a distribution
mean
the arithmentic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and hen dividing by the number of scores
median
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half ae below it
range
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
standard deviation
a computed measure of how m uch scores vary around the mean score
statistical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
theoretical principles
principles used in research that is reined through many experiments
culture
teh enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
post modernism
questions scientific objectivity-influential modern viewpoint