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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Construct Validity
the degree to which a measurement device accurately measures the theoreticle construct it is designed to measure
Convergent Validity
the extent to which scores on the measure are related to scores on other measures of the same construct or similar constructs
Concurrent Validity
groups of people differ on the measure in expected ways
Criterion-oriented validity
relationship between scores on the measure and a criterion or outcome
Discriminate validity
scores on the measure are not related to scores on a conceptually unrelated measures
face validity
device appears to accurately measure a variable
internal consistency reliability
reliability assessed with data collected at one point in time with multiple measures of a psychological construct. A measure is reliable when the multiple measures provide similar results
Interrater reliability
the agreement of observations made by two or more raters
interval scale
intervals between numbers on the scale are all equal in size
measurement error
the degree to which a measurement deviates from the true score value
nomial scale
a scale of measurements with two or more categories that have no numerical properties
ordinal scale
a scale of measurement in which the measurement categories form a rank order along a continuum
pearson etc
interval and ratio data, provides info on strength and direction of relationship
predictive validity
assessed by examining the ability if the measure to predict future behavior
ratio scale
absolute zero indicating absents of variable
problem of measurement in which the maesure changes the behavior being observed
degree to which a measurement is consistent
split-half reliability
determined by the correlation between scores on half of the items on a measure with scores on the other half of a measure
test-retest reliability
determined by the correlation between a measure given at one time with the score of the same measure a second time
True score
an individuals actual score on a variable being measured as opposed to the score the individual obtainted on the measure itself
archival research
use of existing info for research like stat records, surveys, written records
case study
descriptive account of the behavior, past history, and other relevant factors concerning a specific individual
coding system
set of rules used to categorize observations
content analysis
systematic analysis of the content of written records
naturalistic observation
descriptive method in which observations are made in a natural social setting
negative case analysis
in field obs. observations do not fit with the explanatroy structure devised by the researcher
type of case study in which life of an individual is analyzed using psychological theory
systematic observation
observations of one or more specific variables, usually made in precisely defined setting
Cluster sampling
clusters are sampled and then all of the individals in the clusters are included in the sample
Confidence interval
interval of values within which there is a given level of confidence where the population value lies
haphazard (convience) sampling
selecting subjects on basis of avalibility, group not probable
interview bias
intentional of unintentional influence exerted be an interviewer
nonprobability sampling
type of sampling procedure in which on cannot specify the probability that any member of the population will be included in the sample
panel study
in survey research, questioning the same people at two or more points in time
defined group of individuals from which a sample is drawn
probability sampling
one is able to specify the probability that any member or the population will be included in the sample
quota sampling
the sample is chosen to reflect the numerical composition of various subgroups
responce rate
percentage of people selected for a small sample who actually completed a survey
responce set
pattern of individual response to questions on a self-report measure that is not related to the content of the questions
the process of choosing members of a population to be included in a sample
sampling frame
individuals or clusters of individuals in a population who might actually be selected for inclusion in the sample
stratified random sampling
sampling procedure in which the population is divided into strata followed by random sampling from each stratum
analysis of covariance
stat technique to control for the correlation between a subject variable and a dependent variable
group of people born at the same time
cross-sectional method
people of different ages are studied at one point in time
independent groups design
between groups
experiamnt in which different subjects are assigned to each group
longtudinal method
developmental research method in which the same persons are observed repeatedly as they grow older
matched pairs design
method of assigning subjects to groups in which pairs of subjects are first matched on some characteristic and then individually assigned randomly
loss of subjects who decide to leave a study
order effect
the effect that order of introducing treatment has on the dependent variable
repeated measures design
within subjects
subjects are assigned to each group
selection differences
differences in the type of subjects who make up each group
sequential method
combination of the cross-sectional and longitudinal design to study development