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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Alternative explantations
could something else have caused this result. There should be no plausable alternative explanation for the relationship
Applied Research
Research that adresses issues in which there are practical problems and potential solutions. Often guided by theories and findings on basic research.
scientific approach rejects the notion that one can accept on faith the statements of any authority
Basic Research
Answers fundamental questions about the nature of behavior. Often adresses theoretical issues
Covariation of cause and effect
When the cause is present the effect occurs, when the cause is not present the effect does not occur
Knowledge is based on observation
Goals of science
1.describe the behavior, 2.predict behavior, 3.determin the cause of behavior, 4.understand or explain the behavior
finding an explanation for our behavior or the behaviors of others
Program evaluation
evaluates the social reforms and innovationgs that occur in government, education, criminal justice system, industry, health care, and mental health insitituions
Ideas must be evaluated on the basis of careful logic and results for the scientific investigation
Temporal Precedence
temporal order of events in which the cause precedes the effect
The summary of the research article. Includes info about the hypothesis, procedure and the broad patterns of results
Discussion Section
The researcher reviews the research form various prespectives. Support the hypothesis? need to give examples
idea or question; makes a statement about something that may be ture
Introduction section
researcher outlines the problem that has been investigated, past research and theories relevant to the problem described, specific expectationsof the researcher are noted
Literature Review
Articles that summarize the research in a particular area
Method Section
overview of the research design, describes the participants, how were the participants recruited, how many, procedure of the study, very detailed
guess of an outcome of the experiment
Psychologiacal Abstracts
breif summeries of articles in psychologyand related disciplines
Results section
presents the findings by description, statistical description, and graphs and tables
Social Sciences Citation Index
Citation information
provide a framework in which we can organize andexplain a variety of behaviors
Confounding varibles
third variables that may be responsible for an observed relationship between two variables
Construct validity
adequecy of the operational defianition of variables
correlation coefficient
numerical index of the strength of relationship between variables
Curvilinear relationship
increases in the values of one variable are accompanied by both increases and decreases in the values of the other variable
Dependent variable
the variable that is the effect, the measured variable
Experimental control
all extraneous variables are kept constant
External validity
extent to which the results can be generalized to other populations and settings
Field experiment
independent variable is manipulated in a natural setting
Independent variable
the manipulated variable , the "cause"
Internal validity
ability to draw conclusions about causual relationships for data
Mediating variable
psychological processes that mediate the effects of a situational variable on a particular responce
Negative linear relationship
in the values of one variable are accompanied by decreases in the values of the other variable
Nonexperimental method (correlational method)
relationships are studied by making observation or measures of the variable of interest
Operational definition
definition of the variable in terms of the operations or techniques the researchers uses to measure or manipulate it
Participant (subject) variable
individual differences
positive linear relationship
increase in the values, are accompanied by increases in the values of a second variable
ensures that the extraneous variable is just as likely to affect one experimental group as it is to affect the other group
Response variable
are the responses or behaviors of individuals
Situational variable
describe characteristics of a situation or environment
is any event, situation, behavior, or individual characteristic that varies