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126 Cards in this Set

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Surveys
-major function is to dispell myths
-look at how pp feel
-quantify behavior
-allow examination of possible cause-effect relationships
Questionaires
-consider what behaviors want to quantify (purpose)
-consider types of questions going to use (open-endend or close-ended)
Using previously developed questionaires
-aviod redesigning
-compare results w/ previous studies using the same instrument
What should you ask yourself when desinging questions?
1. What do I expect to accomplish (purpose of doing survey)
2. What questions of interpertation may arise when I have the data
What are the two types of questions?
1. open-ended: respondents answer in their own words (i.e. short-answer or essay)
2. close-ended: limit the respondent to certain alternatives
Pros of open-ended questions
-more complete answer
-see reason behind answer so learn more
-may get non-anticipated information
Cons of open-ended questions
-hard to score b/c answers are in narrative form
-require more effort from respondent
When do you use open-ended questions?
-with small groups
-with preliminary studies b/c get range of answers so can standardize alternatives into close-ended format
Pros of close-ended questions
-easy to score (scoring is usually automated
-easy to answer (don't need to generate answer)
-respondents don't have to be as articulated
Cons of close-ended questions
-range of answers are restricted making it hard to reduce complex issue into small set of alternatives
-may not give adequate choices
-doesn't reveal reason behind answers
When do you use close-ended questions?
-with large groups
-with refined studies
What does using both types of question allow for?
-easy coding and analyis of data
-insight into respondent reasoning for choice
What are the "do's" of writing question?
-only address one issue per question (no loaded questions, unambigious, and clear)
-avoid bias in question (may be in wording)
-make alternatives clear, concise, and easy to understand
Mutually exclusive
-answers should be mutually exclusive
-categories defined so that membership in one ruls out membership in another
-only answer one way, no overlap
Exhaustive
-answers should be exhaustive
-categories defined so that all possible cases will fall into one of them
-give entire list of possibilities
Social Desirability
-characteristic of certain repsonses that cause ppl to choos that response even if it doesn't represent their true tendency or opinion
-aviod this in questions to avoid bias
How do you avoid social desirability
-use 2 or more forms of a question (verification key)
-word question so each alternative appears equally socially desirable
Verification Key
-colletion of items on a questionaire desigened to detect dishonesty
-show tendency of person to be influenced by social desireability
What is a lie scale
-form of a verification key
-used to determine if answer questions honesty and if take questionaire seriously
Acquiscence
-tendency to aggree w/ a statement on a questionaire regardless of its content
-T/F, agree/disagree are susceptible to bias caused by this
How do you decide the format of a questionaire?
-depends on issue addressed
-answers may take many forms (T/F, multiple choice) so dependent on type of question asked
Likert Scale
-question that asks for a rating of the extent of agreement or disagreement w/ a statement
-rating scale that measures magnitude of opinion
-usually 7 pt scale
What affect does sequence have on a questionare?
-sequence items carefully b/c answers to some questions may be biased if they were to follow some others
-order effects (may get tired and not respond as clearly)
Branching format
-convient b/c permit respondent to skip inappropiate questions and move through questionaire more efficientyl
-terms used muse be clearly defined
Data Analysis
-how going to score and analyize questionaire
-what type of statistical analysis going to run
-do prior to data collection
Methods of administration
-one that is best depends on circumstances
-face to face, telephone, written, or computarized
Pros of face to face
-develop rapport w/ person
-motivate them to answer carefully
-provide clarification if respondent misunderstands
-get them to elaborate (more info)
Cons of face to face
-introduc bias b/c of social desirability
-expensive b/c one at a time
-safety (danger to interviewer)
-difficult to supervise interviewer (fake data)
Pros of written
-low cost
-impersonal (no bias)
-usu can complete at leisure
Response rate
in survey research, the percentage of individuals in the sample who return the completed survey
Cons of written
-lower response rate
-no clarification
-don't know if person takes questionaire seriously
-illeterate participants comprimise reliabilit and validity of data
Pros of computerized
-cheap, fast collection, high response rate
-impersonal (reduce bias)
-consistent adminstration (everyone takes same way)
-reduces noise
-check invalid responses
-use branching format
-avaible 24/7 (high response rate)
Cons of computerized
-illetrate subjects
-difficult to program
-since unmonitored, ppl could lie bout age or gender making hard to get truly random sample
Pros of telephone
-cheap
-random-digit dialing (random sample)
-rapid
-central location for interviewer (reduce cost)
-possible to use computer-assisted interviewer
Cons of telephone
-need short questionaire to get respondent of finish
-more personal
-difficult to est good rapport
-intrusive
-reduce external validity b/c only ppl w/ phones and patience are sample
Low response rates
-biased in direction of the more vocal ppl
-biased in direction of those who strongly agree or disagree
What is the quality of the data base on?
-direction function of the return rate
-at least 50% response rate
-preferably 90%
Response bias
-refusal to cooperate, failure to return questionaire, or unavaibility of target respondent shoud be recorded
Five ways to sample
hapazard sample
purposive sample
convenience sample
probability sample
cluster sample
Hapazard Samples
-population subgroup for whose selection the researcch use hit or miss methods
-almost worthlessq
Purposive samples
-nonrandom sample that is chosen for some characteristic that is possesses
-meet particular definition or selected for reason
Pros of purposive samples
Pro: frequently preferable to random sample b/c can be considered to constitute a population
Cons of purposive sample
-error in judgement by researcher selecting sample may influence results
Convience Sample
-nonrandom sample chosen for practical reasons
-doesn't come close to sampling all of population
-most pys research uses this
Probability Samples
-reseacher knows the probability that any given individual will appear in the sample
-able to apply various stats
-usu use random sampling
Random Sample
a sample in which every member of the population has an equal and independent chance of being selected
-controlled by chance alone
Random Selection
-controlled by chance alone
-results from selecting some but not all pairs
-any other method of selection could result in some nonindependence among members of a group
-statistical independence
Sampling Frame
-a population as it is defined for the purpose of selecting subjects for a study
-population you will work w/ in the study
Element
-individual memeber of a sampling frame
-each individual that falls within the sampling frame
Types of random samples
systematic sample
simple random sample
stratified sample
Systematic sample
-a probability sample that is not randomly selected
-fails eqaul-probability part of random selection definition
Pros of systematic sample
-taking every nth person is less work than random method
-some structure to list, results nonrandom
-usually survey research b/c easy
cons of systematic sample
-no structure to list, then resulst will be random
Simple Random samples
-group chosen from an entire population such that every member of the population has an equal and independent chance of being selected in a signle sample
-used when pop is believed to homogenious w/ respect to question of interest
Stratified random sample
-a random sample in which two or more subsamples are represented according to some predetermined proportion, generally in the same proportion as they exist in the population
-use if pop has identifiable subgroups that are likely to differ in repsonse
-treat pop as 2 or more separate subpop. and create a separet random sample of each
-accurate
Use of stratified random sample
-oversample some subgroup of the population
-purposely include some group at greater frequency than it is rep. in the population
Cluster samples
-group selected by using clusters or groupings from a larger population
-use if impossible or impractical to number pop.
-not as accurate as random sampling
Multistage sampling
-a form of cluster sampling in which the clusters are further broken down by taking samples from each cluster
True Experiment
research procedure in which the scientist has complete control over all aspects
By controlling all variables, the experimenter can...
-assign subjects randomly to conditions
-control way expt is conducted
quasi-experiment
when a study does not meet the requirements of a true experiment
Factors
-IV's of the expt
-have at least 2
-have at least 2 levels (particular value of an IV)
Condition (treatment)
-a group or treatment in an expt
-term to discuss IV
-way in which subjects are treated
One-group Posttest-Only Design
-research design that measures the behavior of a single group of subjects after they are given the treatment
-many threats to validity are not controlled for
non-equivalent control group
-group of subjects that is not randomly selected from the same population as the experimental group
Post-test with non-equivalent control group
-non-equivalent control group is better than no control group
-quaise expt b/c subjects were not randomly assigned to groups
One-group pretest-posttest design
-measures the behavior of a single group of subjects both before and after treatment
-still threats to validity
-addition of nonequivalent control group improves control sufficiently
What two elements of design are basic to all experimental designs b/c they control for many threat to validity?
-existence of a control group or a control condition
-random allocation of subjects into groups
With-in subject experiment
-possible that some variable may influence data as a result of repeated testing
-avoid if think order or sequence effects will be substantial
Order effects
-changes in a subject's performance resulting from the position in which a condition appears in an expt
Sequence effects
-changes in a subject's performance resulting from interactions among the conditions themselves
Counterbalancing
-controlling for order and sequence effects by arranging that subjects experience the various conditions in different orders
What are the two strageties to controll for order and sequence effects?
1. arrange the order of the conditions in such a way that order and sequence effects are controlled w/in subjects
2. control for order and sequence effects bwt subjects
Ways to control for order effects in w/in-subjects design
randomization, block randomization, counter-balancing, reverse counter-balancing, and Latin square
Randomization
-randomize order of conditions for each subject
-used when each condition is given several times to each subject
Block Randomization
-order of conditions is randomized but with each condition being presented once before any condition is repeated
When's block randomization useful?
-if each condition is presented at least twice and expt requires 2 or more sessions
-if conditions are presented several times to subjects
Reverse counter-balancing
-conditions are presentedd in order the first time and then in reverse order
When do you use reverse counter-balancing
-relatively few subjects
-several conditions presented a few times
-typical ex. is w/ 3 conditions
When does counter-balancing work well?
-when you suspect that the possible confounding variables will act in a linear manner over conditions
Latin Square
-control procedure in which each subject experiences each condition in a different order from other subjects
-incomplete counterbalancing b/c doesn't meet requirement that each condition follow every other condition an equal number of times
-sequence is not controlled for
-more flexibility in choosing # of subjects to be tested
-used when not possible to control for order and sequence effects within subjects
two-conditions design
-simplest research design, involving only 2 conditions
-each subject serves as own control
-all subjects experience both conditions in counterbalanced order
Why is 2 condition design tested within subjects not used that often?
1. many expts involve more than 2 conditions
2. possibility of carry over effects from one condition to the other
Multiple condition design
-research design that involves more than 2 conditions
-usually between-subject experiments
When do you use multiple condition design?
1.compare several variables or treatments for effectiveness
2.determine the shape of the function that relates the IV and DV
3.presence of more than one rival hypotheisi must be ruled out
Why use the two condition design tested between subjects?
-possibility of large order or sequence effects is present
-once participants experience one condition they would no longer be naive about the situation
Why use the multiple conditions design tested between subjects?
-study the effects of several levels of one IV
When is a between-subject design used?
-when a significant interaction bwt conditions would occur if test within subjects
When are multiple-condtions, within-subjects experiments common?
-in perception research, as when one scale the brightness of different intensities of light
Observational Research
-observe and record ongoing behavior but do no attempt to change it
-can be experimental or non-experimental
Characteristics of true experiments
-manipulation
-assignment
-strong inference about casuality
Manipulation
in an experiment, conditions or variables assigned or presented to a participant
assignemtn
pairing a subject with a condition or variable according to the experimenter's plan
observation
record of behavior
correlational research (non-experimental research)
-measures 2 or more variables to determine the degree of relationship bwt them
-dont manipulate IV, assign subjects, and cant draw strong inferences bout casuality
-often used to guide later experimental research
Hermeneutics
-nonexperimental
-study of behavior to understand behavior rather than determine casuality
archival research
-examine existing recordes to obtain data and test hypothesis
case study
-exploratory study of an existing situation as a means of creating and testing a hypothesis
Theory development
-hypothesis to prediciton to test prediction through observation to evaluate
-if consistent w/ hypothesis keep it
-if not consistent w/ hypothesis generate new hypothesis
deductive reasoning
-premise to conclusion
-experimental research
-have theoritical concept
inductive reasoning
-specific example to conclusion
-non-experimental research
survey
-assessing public opinion or individual characteristics by the use of questionaire and sampling methods
What are the 4 non-experimental research methods?
observational
archival
case studies
surveys
observational research
(ethology: animal study)
-naturalistic observation
-unobtrusive research
-non reactive research
naturalistic observation
observational research of subjects in their natural environment carried out to disturb the subjects as little as possible
unobtrusive research
another term for naturalistic observation commonly used in the social sciences
non reactive research
another term for naturalistic observation in the social sciences emphasizing the subjects are unaware that they are being studied
Physical trace
-unobtrusive measure of behavior that uses physical evidence
-indirect way of studying behavior
natural (field) setting
-environment were behavior happens naturally
-ecologically valid
-if in lab, change behavior
general rules for good observational research
-keep careful records
-use a variety of measures
-respect privacy of individuals studyign
Participant observer research
-observational research in which the observer participates in a group to record behavior
When is participant observer research useful?
-small groups
-seperate from society (cults)
-groups which little is know
What are the problems or limitations of participant observer research?
-difficult to gain membership (don't like outsiders)
-may not be ethical to incorporate self into group
-dangerous
-affect behavior w/ presence
What should you consider before starting observational research?
-operational definitions of constructs (define constructs in term of procedures
-content analysis
How can you answer the question of operational defintions?
-be systematic
-be selective of type of behavior studying
-use technology
-safe guard data (multiple copies)
content analysis
-ways of interperting behavior
-ideally want both manifest and latent content analysis
-also ideally want 2 or more coder for coding reliability
manifest content
number of times a word appears in text
latent content
way a word appears in text
protocols
-script
-give script to ppl running expt to make sure its run same way w/ everyone
pilot study
-small scale study
-begin study w/ one to see if get certain results
Archival research
-done on files already out there
-do it b/c data already exists, may be more ethical, or make more legistical sense
archival data
factual info in existing records
limitations on archival research
-data collection isn't controlled by researcher so data may be inadequate
-may be impossible to rule out other hypothesis
meta-analysis
when many expts are run, you can run analysis on expts
-ie 9 out of 10 studies show...
case studies
-observational and/or archival methods
-examine individual instances of some phenomenia (ongoing situation)
characteristics of case studies
-researcher must be opertunistic
-usually in less than ideal situations so researcher doesn't have control over conditions
-can't draw inferences bout casuality