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86 Cards in this Set

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APA ethics code
-represents the consensus of the psychology profession about what is considered acceptable practice
What are the 6 general ethics "rule of thumb"
1. be explicit about research project
2. treat subjects w/ respect
3. find out about previous guidelines
4. don't lie about procedure b/c could be fined or have research abilit revoked
5. don't harm or put subjects at risk
6. dont' perform unnecessaryly hard/difficult procedure
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
-appropiate constituted body of ppl that look through research project to decidie if appropriate
-studies present as little risk to subjects as possible and have scientific merit (risks and payoffs)
-each institution has own and is required by federal govern if recieve federal funding
Responsibilities of researcher
-see ethical principles are followed
-protect subjects from harm
-protect subjects from stress
-conflict bwt values of expanding knowledge and cost of research to participants
What factors must be considered to protect participant from harm?
-any new situation is stressful and concievably could be harmful so impossible to aviod risk of harm entirely
-stress can physical or psychological (deceit, mental stress)
-to judge acceptability of stress assess how stressful situation is likely to be compared w/ activities of everyday life
Characterisitcs of informed consent
-ensures participant is taking part voluntarily and is aware of what is about to happen
-purpose of research, duration, and procedures, rights to decline or withdrawl and the consequences, potential risks, discomfort, or adverse effects, prospective benefits, limits of confidentiality, incentives, and whom to contact
Privacy and freedom from coercion
-balance right to privacy against welfare of society as whole
-need to know individual subject results wont be released to the public
-names must be kept seperate from subject's data/results
-results can't be used against subject in any way
-serious sums of money cannot be offered for participation and ppl cannnot be induced to participate w/ false promises
When and what type of deception is permissible
-no alternative procedures are feasiblt and the payoffs exceed the risks
-deception cannot be used w/ research that may cause physical pain or severe emotional distress
-explanation of deception must be given to participant as soon as feasible
-have to tell what research is really about at end
-if show emotional stimuli should give subset to see if subject is okay w/ them before
confederate
-actors in expt
-form of deception
-subject must be told about them at conclusion of experiment
what is debriefing
-process of informing the subjects after the session of the experiment's true purpose to increase their understanding and to remove possible harmful effects of deception
What info is included in debriefing?
-general and theoritical debriefing
-how and why deception was used and its relation to the theoritical construct
-contact info of researcher and reference list
what is the role of the participant in research
-consent = contractial agreement so should do what expected to do
Guidelines for animal research and for insuring animal welfare
-usually not in psychology but different standards b/c can be invasive
-only 50% of legal dose can be given to animal
-should be treated humanely (aniseptics, clean living conditions, can't be too stressed)
animal rights
notion that animals have the same sort of rights as people, including legal rights (not generally accepted)
-unethical to use animals for research, food, pets, recreation, etc
animal welfare
generally accepted term for concerns about the care and use of animals
-humane treatment of animals
speciesism
term used by analogy w/ racism and sexism by those who claim that it is unethical to treat animals differently from humans, particularly in research
-reject any special moral status for humans
invisible college
informal communication network of ppl having common scientific interests
-new ideas and results are usu. first discussed through this
discourse community
group of ppl who share common goals, a public forum, common knowledge, and a specialized language
-psychologists (audience)
Goals of scientific writing
-convey a message clearly, concisely, and interestingly
-persuade as well as inform
agrument
a set of reasons in support of a proposition
thesis
the proposition that is supported by an agruement
Characterisitcs of good scientific writing
1. Clarity: say exactly what you mean as directly as possible
2. Brevity: brief (good communication)
3. Felicity: pleasingness of style (liveliness and grace)
Heurisitcs for good writing (esp. clarity)
1. prepare outline
2. use technology (spell check)
3. be prepare to "kill your baby" b/c it'll take several tries to make it perfect
4. have someone else proofread
5. read paper aloud
Science Journal
-includes many science areas like psychology and physics
-for up and coming research
APA guidlines and their benefits benefits
-avoid sexist language and ethnic bias in writing (ambiguity and stereotyping)
-standardized format that's helpful for publisher
-don't have to reformat for each journal
Parts of APA paper
title page
abstract
introduction
method
results
discussion
references
foot notes/ author notes if any
tables
figure caption
figures
Title page
-title (centered, include keywords, convey main idea)
-author(s): listed in order of importance of their contribution and last author is usually most prestigious (money source)
-affiliations
-running head in upper right corner
abstract
-summary of most important elements
-self-contained
-max 120 words
-block form, on pg 2, heading abstract centered
Body
-intro, methods, results, discusion
-begin w/ title centered
-centered heading organize subsections
Introduction
-not labled, on pg 3
-state general problem examined
-discuss relevant literature
-indicate hypothesis
-state how study will contribute to understanding the problem
-expected results
Method (heart of the paper)
-in past tense
-allows someone to repeat experiment exactly in all essential detials
-judge validity of conclusions by comparing them w/ the method section
-subheadings: participants, materials, design (logic/ varibales), procedure
Results
-past tense (what you found)
-indicate any data transformations made before analysis
-describe statistical procedures
-displace/summarize data in table, figure, or graph
Discussion
-state relationship bwt findings and hypothesis
-present tense
-interperate results and relate them to literature (similiarities and differences)
References
-ties paper to literature
-only lists papers cited in text
-3 componets: author, title, yr
-hanging indent
-new page
Author notes
-provide mailing address, acknowledgements (of financial supportors and technical assitance)
-distracting--aviod
Foot notes
-content and copyright permission types
-aviod footnotes to content of paper
-copyright footnotes are used for reprinted tables or figs
Tables
-supplement material in text not duplicate material
Figure captions
-each figure has one
-describes content of figure
-come after tables but before figures themselves
Figures
-professionaly rendered (high quality)
-simple as possible (clear/brief)
-aviod color
-stylistically pleasing
Steps in the publication process
1. before write manuscript
-decidie which journal going to submit to
-impact factor of journal (circulation, how many ppl read it, how many submissions it receives, etc.)
-choose journal that publishes articles similiar to yours and the one you cited the most
2. before submit manuscript
-know requirements of journal (hard copy or electronic submission)
-know turnaround time (how long it takes to review)
-balance prestige of journal w/ difficulty of getting published
-prepare cover letter
Steps in publication process continued
3. after submission
-paper goes to reviewers (subjective process)
-4 options
-resubmittL need another cover letter and address every reviewers pts and whether followed suggestion and if not why
cover letter
-addressed to editor
-include title and some details like theory, methods, results, significance
-give return address and #
If published what happens
-"in press"
-you get copyeditied version of manuscript and make corrections
-get proofs of what paper will look like
-can take 12-18 months from acceptance to publication
Oral Presentations
1.Talks: shorten paper, simplify material, organize talk to main pts of paper w/ 1 or 2 pts in each section, most of time should be spent on results w/ emphasis on main findings
2. Posters: place copies of abstract or paper in pocket on board, stay near board to talk to ppl
Validity
-an indication of accuracy in terms of the extent to which a research conclusion corresponds with reality
-truth of observations or experiment
-dependent on validity and reliability
Reliability
-observations were obtained on multiple samples (many times)
-only one measurement
Internal Validity
-extent to which a study provided evidence for a cause-effect relationship bwt the IV and the DV
-degree to which 2 or more
variables are related
-variables important hypothesis must be controlled
Confounding variables
-covaries w/ the IV
-their effects cannot be sorted out
-big threat to validity in an experiment
Subject variables
-differences bwt subjects that cannot be controlled but can only be selected
-gender, age
Threats to internal validity
1. history: events that take place in time could change results
2. maturation
3. testing (order) effects
4. regression effects
5. selection-experimenter bias
6. mortality
Construct validity
-extent to whcih the results support the theory behind the research
-measure what suppose to
-experimental results have to support theory motivated by experiment
-if measurement used in some research lacks construct validity the research as a whole will also
-rule out other possible theoretical explanation
auxilliary hypothesis
-better theory supports results
-theory x-hypothesis-expt-results
-theory y supports hypothesis
External Validity
-how well the findings of an experiment generalize to other situations or populations
-whole pt of research
Statisitical Validity
-extent to which data are shown to be the result of cause-effect relationships rather than accident
-statistical tests guarantee only low probability not definite cause-effect relationship
-statistical significance (type of test)
Maturation
soure of error related to the amount of time bwt measurements
-development of subjects (esp w/ children)
-subjects change
Regression effects
tendency of subjects with extreme scores oon a first measure to score closer to the mean on a second testing
random error
that part of the value of a varibale that can be attributed to chance
Mortality
the dropping out of some subjects before an experiment is completed causing a threat to validity
Threats to construct validity
1. poor operational definitions
-loose connection bwt theory and method
2. ambiguous effects of IV's
Examples of ambiguous effects of the IV's
1.Hawthorne effect: individuals behavior may be altered b/c somebody know they are being observed
2. good-subject tendency: participants act according to what they think the experimenter wants
3. evaluation apprehension (ie social desirability)
-alter behavior to appear socially desirable (anxiety, want to look good)
Threats to External Validity
1. population: generalizing from sample to population
2. time: population may change w/ time so conclusions not valid anymore
3. other settings: move from lab to another or real world setting
Threats to statistical validity
1. erroneous stats (wrong tests, not correcting for multiple occurences)
2. not enough power (not enough subjects or observations to detect effect)
Control
any means used to rule out threats to the validity of research
-not every experiment requires a control group
-providing a standard against which to compare the effect of a particular IV
-control for as many variables as possible for best validity (internal validity)
-ability to restrain or guide sources of variability in research
control conditions
-condition in a within-subject design experiment that does not contain the experimental manipulation
-serves as baseline
experimental conditions
-treatment
-what you change to affect measurement
-allows for strong inference about casaulity
experimental group
subjects in an experiment who receive treatment
control group
subjects in a between-subjects design experiment who are like the experimental group in every respect except that they do not recieve treatment
With-In Subjects Experiment
-research design in which each subject experiences every condition of the experiment
Between-Subjects Experiment
-research design in which each subject experiences only one of the conditions in the experiment
Methods of Experimental Control
1. laboratory setting: control everthing in lab setting (social research is done in field setting)
2. laboratory preparatons: method/procedure is same for all subjects (also allows for replication)
3. instrumentation: make response reliable, improve the measurement of the behavior (DV)
Modularity Theory (Fodor, 1983)
-mind is seperated into different processing modulars
-domain specific: incoming info is specific (1 type of processing )
-information encapslated: no other input from other modules
-automatic: automatically process incoming visual info a specific way
Design 1 : Between-Subjects
-2 conditions: control group and experimental group
-participant assignment: random to avoid confounds like order effect
-instrumentation (how test)
single trial or multiple trials
-counter-balancing: order effects, control number of each type of response
counterbalancing
controlling for order and sequence effects by arranging that subjects experience the various conditions in different orders
Design 2: Within-Subjects
-same ppl run through each condition
-powerful control technique b/c variation caused by differences bwt ppl is greatly reduced
-basic logic: control condition vs experimental condition
-pros: more power, more control for bwt subject variability
-cons: not always feasible
When to use subjects as own control
1.logically possible
2.participating in all conditions will not destroy the naivete of the subject
3.serious contrast effects bwt conditions will not be present
Random Assignment
-unbiased assignment process that gives each subject an equal and independent chance of being place in every condition
-confounding of subject-related variables can only occur by chance w/ random assignment
Design 3: Matched Design
-match participates on certain variables
-justification conditions
1. important variable subjects differ on that can be controlled by matching
2. feasible to present a pretest to the subjects before assigning them to the condition
-still randomly allocate the members of the pair conditions
Matching
-yolking
-control procedure to ensure that experimental and control groups are equated on one or more variables before the experiment
Matched Design: pros/cons
pros: more statistically power
cons: more complicated, possibly less power when stats are based on fewer degrees of freedom
nuisance variables
-a condition in an experiment that cannot easily be removed and so is made an IV as a means of control
Statistical Control
mathematical means of comparing subjects on paper when they cannot be equated as they exist in fact
-broadly synonymous w/ inferential statistics
Replication
repeating an experiment to see if the results will be the same
-method of control
Direct Replication
-someone repeats essentially the identical experiment in an attempt to obtain the same results
-seldom carried out
Systematic Replication
-similiar experiment but with different type of subjects, different values of the stimulus, or with different ways of measuring the theoritical concept
-tests external validity
Independent sample t-test
assume have different SD for 2 groups
-2 groups come from different populations
Matched sample t-test
can relate SD b/c matched individuals