Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/68

Click to flip

68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
attrition
a threat to the internal validity of a study; occurs when participants fail to complete a study, usually but not necessarily in longitudinal studies; those finishing the study may not be equivalent to those who stated it
confound
any extraneous variable that covaries with the independent variable and could provide an alternative explanation of the results
construct validity
in research, refers to whether the operational definitions used for independent and dependent variables are valid
control group
a group not given a treatment that is being evaluated in a study; provides a means of comparison
dependent variable
behavior measured as the outcome of an experiment
ecological validity
said to exist when research studies psychological phenomena in everyday situations (e.g., memory for where we put our keys.)
experiment
a research procedure in which some factor is varied, all else is held constant, and some result is measured
experimental group
in a study with an identified control group, the experimental group is given the treatment being tested
external validity
the extent to which the findings of a study generalize to other populations, other settings, and other times
extraneous variable
any uncontrolled factor that is not of interest to the researcher but could affect the results
field experiment
an experiment that is conducted outside of the laboratory; a narrower term than field research
field research
research that occurs in any location other than a scientific laboratory
history
a threat to the internal validity of a study; occurs when some historical event that could affect participants occurs between the beginning of a study and its end
independent variable
the factor of interest to the researcher; it can be directly manipulated by the experimenter (e.g., creating different levels of anxiety in subject) or participants can be selected by virtue of their possessing certain attributes (e.g., selecting two groups who differ in the normal levels of anxiousness)
instructional variable
type of independent variable in which participants are given different sets of instructions about how to perform (e.g., given stimuli, various groups might be told to process them in different ways).
instrumentation
a threat to the internal validity of a study; occurs when the measuring instrument changes from pretest to posttest (e.g., because of their experience with the instrument, experimenters might use it differently from pretest to posttest).
internal validity
the extent to which a study is free from methodological flaws, especially confounding factors
maturation
a threat to the internal validity of a study; occurs when participants change from the beginning to the end of the study simply as a result of maturational changes within them and not as a result of some independent variable
posttest
a measurement given to participants at the conclusion of a study after they have experienced a treatment or been in a control group; comparisons are made with pretest scores to determine if change occurred
pretest
a measurement given to participants at the outset of a study, prior to their being given a treatment (or not treated when subjects are in a control group).
regression to the mean
if a score on a test is extremely high or low, a second score taken will be closer to the mean score; can be a threat to the internal validity of a study if a pretest score is extreme and the posttest score changes in the direction of the mean
situational variable
type of independent variable in which subject encounter different environmental circumstances (e.g., large vs. small rooms in a crowding study).
statistical conclusion validity
said to exist when the researcher uses statistical analysis properly and draws the appropriate conclusions from the analysis
subject selection
a threat to the internal validity of a study; occurs when those participating in a study cannot be assigned randomly to groups; hence the groups are nonequivalent
subject variable
a type of independent variable that is selected rather than manipulated by the experimenter; refers to an already existing attribute of the individuals chosen for the study (e.g. gender)
task variable
type of independent variable in which participants are given different types of tasks to perform (e.g., mazes that differ in level of difficulty).
testing
a threat to the internal validity of a study; occurs when the fact of taking a pretest influences posttest scores, perhaps by sensitizing participants to the purpose of a study
asymmetric transfer
occurs when one sequence produces a transfer effect that is different from that produced by another counterbalancing sequence
between-subjects design
any experimental design in which different groups of particpants serve in the different conditions of the study
block randomization
a procedure used to accomplish random assignment and ensure an equal number of subjects in each condition; ensures that each condition of the study has a subject randomly assigned to it again; also used in within-subjects design as a counterbalancing procedure to ensure that when subjects are tested in each condition more than once, they experience each condition once before experiencing it again
carryover effect
form of sequence effect in which systematic changes in performance occur as a result of completing a sequence of conditions rather than a different sequence
cohort effect
a cohort is a group of people born at the same time; cohort effects can reduce the internal validity of cross-sectional studies because differences between groups could result from the effects of growing up in different historical eras
complete counterbalancing
occurs when all possible orders of conditions are used in a within-subjects design
counterbalancing
for a within-subjects variable, any procedute designed to control for sequence effects
cross-sectional study
in development psychology, a design in which age is the independent variable and different groups of people are tested; each group is of a different age
demand characteristics
any feature of the experimental design or procedure that increases the chances that participants will detect the true purpose of the study
double-blind
a control procedure designed to reduce bias; neither the participant nor the person conducting the experimental session knows which condition of the study is being tested; often used in studies evaluating drug effects
equivalent groups
groups of participants in a between-subjects design that are essentialy equal to each other in all ways except for the different levels of the independent variable
evaluation apprehension
a form of anxiety experienced by participants that leads them to behave so as to be evaluated positively by the experimenter
experimenter bias
occurs when an experimenter's expectations about a study affect its outcome
good subject effect
a form of participant bias in which participants try to guess the experimenter's hypothesis and then behave in such a way as to confirm it
Hawthorne effect
name often given to a form of participant bias in which behavior is influenced by the mere knowledge that the participant is in an experiment and is therefore of some importance to the experimenter
latin square
form of partial counterbalancing in which each condition of the study occurs equally often in each sequential position and each condition precedes and follows each other condition exactly one time
longitudinal study
in developmental psychology, a design in which age is the independent variable and the same group of people are tested repeatedly at different ages
manipulation check
in debriefing, a procedure to determine if subjects wre aware of a deception experiment's true purpose; also refers to any procedure that determines if systematic manipulations have the intended effect on participants
matching
a procedure for creating equivalent groups in which participants are measured on some factor (a "matching variable") expected to correlate with the dependent variable; groups are then formed by taking participants who score at the same level on the matching variable and randomly assigning them to groups
matching variable
any variavle selected for matching participants in a matched groups study
partial counterbalancing
occurs when a sub-set of all possible orders of conditions is used in a within-subjects design (e.g., a random sample of the population of all possible orders could be selected).
participant bias
can occur when the behavior of participants is influenced by their beliefs about how they are supposed to behave in study
progressive effect
in a within-subjects design, any sequence effect in which the accumulated effects are assumed to be the same from trial to trial (e.g., fatigue)
random assignment
the most common procedure for creating equivalent groups in a between-subjects design; each individual volunteering for the study has an equal probability of being asigned to any one of the groups in the study
reverse counterbalancing
occurs in a within-subjects design when participants are tested more than once per condition; subjects experience one sequence, then a second with the order reversed from the first (e.g., A-B-C-C-B-A)
sequence (order) effect
can occur in a within-subjects design when the experience of participating in one of the conditions of the study influences performance in subsequent conditions (see Progressive effect and Carryover effect)
within-subjects design
any experimental design in which the same participants serve in each of the different conditions of the study; also called a "repeated-measures" design
ANOVA
Short for ANalysis Of VAriance, the most common inferential statistical tool for analyzing the results of experiments when dependent variables are measured in interval or ratio scales
continuous variable
variable for which an infinite number of values potentially exists (e.g., a drug's dosage level)
discrete variable
variable in which each level represents a distinct category that is qualitatively different from another category (e.g., males and females)
independent groups design
a between-subjects design that uses a manipulated independent variable and has at least two groups of participants; subjects are randomly assigned to the groups
matched groups design
a between-subjects design that uses a manipulated independent variable and has at least two groups of participants; subjects are matched on some variable assumed to affect the outcome before being randomly assigned to the groups
nonequivalent groups design
a between-subjects design with at least two groups of participants that uses a subject variable or that creates groups that are nonequivalent
nonlinear effects
any outcome that does not form a straight line when graphed; can occur only when the independent variable has more than two levels
placebo control group
control group in which some participants believe they are receiving the experimental treatment, but they are not.
repeated-measures design
another name for a within-subjects design; participants are tested in each of the experiment's conditions
single-factor multilevel design
any design with a single independent variable and more than two levels of the independent variable
t test for dependent groups
an inferential statistical analysis used when comparing two groups in either a matched groups design or a repeated-measures design
t test for independent groups
an inferential statistical analysis used when comparing two groups in either an independent groups design or a non-equivalent groups design
waiting list control group
control group in which participants aren't yet receiving treatment but will eventually; used to ensure that those in the experimental and control groups are similar (e.g., all seeking treatment for the same problem)
yoked control group
control group in which the treatment given a a member of the control group is matched exactly with the treatment given a member of the experimental group