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50 Cards in this Set

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A-B Design
A single subject design consisting of a baseline phase where the IV hasn't been introduced and an intervention phase where the IV was introduced. It doesn't demonstrate a functional relation and susceptible to extraneous variables.
A-B-A Design
An experimental design consisting of an initial baseline until stable, a treatment condition until behavior changed and steady responding and return to baseline by withdrawing IV to see if responding reverses to levels observed in initial baseline
A-B-A-B Design
An experimental design consisting of initial baseline, an initial intervention (treatment implemented until behavior has changed adn steady responding), return to baseline, return to intervention to see if initial treatment effects are replicated
A-B-C Design
An experimental design consisting of a baseline phase, a treatment phase, and a phase with a different treatment.
Alternating Treatment Design
An experimental design in which 2 or more conditions are presented in rapidly alternation succession (1 phase may be control) independent of level of responding.
Applied Research
Research designed to solve socially significant problems
Arbitrary Matching to Sample
Extra Credit:
Ascending Trend
An increasing data path
B-A-B Design
A three phase experimental design that begins with the treatment phase (IV), then treatment is withdrawn, and then the treatment (IV) is reintroduced.
Baseline
A condition of an experiment in which the IV is not present; data obtained in baseline are basis for determining effects of IV- doesn't mean absence of treatment, just absence of specific IV
Basic Research
Research designed just to determine the function of behavior with no thought for application
Behavior
Any activity of a living organism that results in a measurable change in atleast 1 aspect of the environment.
Changing Criterion Design
An experimental design in which an initial baseline phase is followed by a series of treatment phases(IV is present) consisting of successive and gradually changing criteria for reinforcement or punishment. Experimental control is evidenced by the extent the level of responding changes to conform to each new criterion.
Confound
An uncontrolled factor known or suspected to exert influence on the dependent variable.
Continuous Measurement
Measurement conducted where all instances of the response class of interest are detected during the observation period
Discontinuous Measurement
Measurement conducted in which some instances of the response class of interest may not be detected
Cumulative Recorder
A device that automatically draws cumulative records (graphs) that show the rate of response in real time; each time a response is emitted, a pen moves upward across paper that continuously moves at constant speed
Dependent Variable
The variable in an experiment measured to determine if it changes as a result of manipulations of the independent variable
Descending Trend
A decreasing data path
Direct Replication
An experiment in which the researcher attempts to duplicate exactly the conditions of an earlier experiment
Empirical
the objective observation of the phenomena of interest
Event Recording
Measurement procedure for obtaining a count of the number of times a behavior occurs
Experiment
A carefully controlled comparison of some measure of the dependent variable under two or more different conditions in which only one factor at a time (IV) differs from one condition to the other
Experimental Control
the extent to which the experimenter has demonstrated a true functional relation and internal validity
Experimental Design
The particular type and sequence of conditions in a study so that meaningful comparisons of the effects of the presence and absence f the independent variable can be made
Experimental Question
A statement of what the researcher seeks to learn by conducting the experiment
External Validity
The degree to which a study's findings have generality to other subjects, settings, and/or behaviors.
Extraneous Variable
Any aspect of the experimental setting that must be held constant to prevent unplanned environmental variation
Frequency
the number of times a behavior occurs
Functional Relation
manipulations of the IV reliably produce changes in the DV and the changes are unlikely due to confounds or extraneous variables
Graphing
adf
Independent Variable
The variable that is systematically manipulated by the researcher in an experiment to see whether changes in the IV produce reliable changes in the DV
Interval Validity
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Inter-Observer Agreement
The degree to which two or more independent observers report the same observed values after measuring the same events
Irreversibility
A situation that occurs when the level of responding observed in a previous phase cannot be reproduced even though the experimental conditions are the same as they were during the earlier phase
Latency
df
Multiple Baseline Design
An experimental design that begins with the concurrent measurement of two or more behaviors in a baseline condition, followed by the application of the treatment variable to one of the behaviors while baseline conditions remain in effect for the other behaviors. After maximum change has been noted in the first behavior, the treatment variable is applied in sequential fashion to each of the other behaviors in the design
Multi-Element Design
adf
Partial Interval Recording
adf
Percent Correct
The number of correct responses divided by the total number of responses multiplied by 100.
Permanent Product
Permanent record of behavior that can be viewed repeatedly
Procedural Integrity
s
Replication
adf
Reversal Design
Any experimental design in which the researcher attempts to verify the effect of the independent variable by reversing responding to a level obtained in a previous condition
Semi-Logarithmic Chart
A 2d graph with a logarithmic scaled y axis so that equal distances on the vertical axis represent changes in behavior that are of equal proportion
Single-Subject Research Designs
Research designs that use baseline logic to demonstrate the effects of the independent variable on the behavior of individual subjects
Social Validity
Refers to the extent to which target behaviors are appropriate, intervention procedures are acceptable, and important and significant changes in target and collateral behaviors are produced
Trend
The overall direction taken by a data path
Validity
The extent to which data obtained from measurement are directly relevant to the target behavior of interest and to the reason for measuring it.
Withdrawal Design
A-B-A design: experiments in which an effective treatment is sequentially or partially withdrawn to promote the maintenance of behavior changes