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47 Cards in this Set

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List topics appropriate for experiments
 Projects with limited and well-defined concepts.
 Projects that are explanatory (rather than descriptive).
 Studies of small group interaction.
List topics appropriate for experiments
 Projects with limited and well-defined concepts.
 Projects that are explanatory (rather than descriptive).
 Studies of small group interaction.
Describe the three strategies for selecting subjects
 Probability sampling
 Randomization
 Matching
Describe the three strategies for selecting subjects
 Probability sampling
 Randomization
 Matching
Describe pre-experimental designs, list examples of each of these three designs, and assess the strengths and weaknesses of each.
 One-shot case study - single group of subjects is measured on a variable following experimental stimulus.
 One-group pretest-posttest design - adds a pre-test for the group, but lacks a control group.
 Static-group comparison - includes experimental and control group, but no pre-test.
Describe pre-experimental designs, list examples of each of these three designs, and assess the strengths and weaknesses of each.
 One-shot case study - single group of subjects is measured on a variable following experimental stimulus.
 One-group pretest-posttest design - adds a pre-test for the group, but lacks a control group.
 Static-group comparison - includes experimental and control group, but no pre-test.
Describe the Solomon four-group and the posttest only designs—how does it differ from the classical experimental design?
 Groups 1 and 2 are the control and experimental group.
 Group 3 does not have the pre-test.
 Group 4 is only posttested.

 Includes Groups 3 and 4 of the Solomon design.
 With proper randomization, only these groups are needed to control problems of internal invalidity and the interaction between testing and stimulus.
Describe the Solomon four-group and the posttest only designs—how does it differ from the classical experimental design?
 Groups 1 and 2 are the control and experimental group.
 Group 3 does not have the pre-test.
 Group 4 is only posttested.

 Includes Groups 3 and 4 of the Solomon design.
 With proper randomization, only these groups are needed to control problems of internal invalidity and the interaction between testing and stimulus.
Describe the logic behind the double-blind experiment.
 An experimental design in which neither the subjects nor the experimenters know which is the experimental group and which is the control.
Describe the logic behind the double-blind experiment.
 An experimental design in which neither the subjects nor the experimenters know which is the experimental group and which is the control.
Describe and give examples of natural experiments.
 Important social scientific experiments occur outside controlled settings and in the course of normal social events.
 Raise validity issues because researcher must take things as they occur.
Examine the strengths and weaknesses of the experimental method.
Strengths:
 Isolation of the experimental variable over time.
 Experiments can be replicated several times using different groups of subjects.
Weaknesses:
 Artificiality of laboratory setting.
 Social processes that occur in a lab might not occur in a more natural social setting.
List appropriate topics for survey designs
Descriptive
Exploratory
Explanatory

Series of questions asked and then the researcher finds associations among them (or even causality, but not with cross-sectional surveys)
Assess the strengths and weaknesses of survey design.
Useful in describing the characteristics of a large population.
Make large samples feasible.
Flexible - many questions can be asked on a given topic.

Can seldom deal with the context of social life.
Inflexible in some ways.
Subject to artificiality.
Weak on validity.
Describe and give examples of natural experiments.
 Important social scientific experiments occur outside controlled settings and in the course of normal social events.
 Raise validity issues because researcher must take things as they occur.
Describe the three main survey types and compare and contrast them in terms of appropriateness, costs, and effectiveness.
self administered survey

phone survey

interview survey
Examine the strengths and weaknesses of the experimental method.
Strengths:
 Isolation of the experimental variable over time.
 Experiments can be replicated several times using different groups of subjects.
Weaknesses:
 Artificiality of laboratory setting.
 Social processes that occur in a lab might not occur in a more natural social setting.
State the rules for successful interviewing and examples.
Dress in a similar manner to the people who will be interviewed.
Study and become familiar with the questionnaire.
Follow question wording exactly.
Record responses exactly.
Probe for responses when necessary

Discussion of general guidelines and procedures.
Specify how to handle difficult or confusing situations.
Conduct demonstration interviews.
Conduct “real” interviews
List appropriate topics for survey designs
Descriptive
Exploratory
Explanatory

Series of questions asked and then the researcher finds associations among them (or even causality, but not with cross-sectional surveys)
State the guidelines for questionnaire construction and examples.
One question at a time.
Use contingency questions when necessary.
Format matrix questions so they are easily answered.

Be aware of issues with ordering items.
Include instructions for the questionnaire if it’s going to be a self-administered questionnaire.
Pretest all or part of the questionnaire on a small group of respondents.
Assess the strengths and weaknesses of survey design.
Useful in describing the characteristics of a large population.
Make large samples feasible.
Flexible - many questions can be asked on a given topic.

Can seldom deal with the context of social life.
Inflexible in some ways.
Subject to artificiality.
Weak on validity.
Describe secondary analysis (along with its strengths and weaknesses).
A form of research in which the data collected and processed by one researcher are reanalyzed—often for a different purpose—by another.
This is especially appropriate in the case of survey data.
Data archives are repositories or libraries for the storage and distribution of data for secondary analysis.
Problems: validity
Describe the three main survey types and compare and contrast them in terms of appropriateness, costs, and effectiveness.
self administered survey

phone survey

interview survey
State the rules for successful interviewing and examples.
Dress in a similar manner to the people who will be interviewed.
Study and become familiar with the questionnaire.
Follow question wording exactly.
Record responses exactly.
Probe for responses when necessary

Discussion of general guidelines and procedures.
Specify how to handle difficult or confusing situations.
Conduct demonstration interviews.
Conduct “real” interviews
State the guidelines for questionnaire construction and examples.
One question at a time.
Use contingency questions when necessary.
Format matrix questions so they are easily answered.

Be aware of issues with ordering items.
Include instructions for the questionnaire if it’s going to be a self-administered questionnaire.
Pretest all or part of the questionnaire on a small group of respondents.
Describe secondary analysis (along with its strengths and weaknesses).
A form of research in which the data collected and processed by one researcher are reanalyzed—often for a different purpose—by another.
This is especially appropriate in the case of survey data.
Data archives are repositories or libraries for the storage and distribution of data for secondary analysis.
Problems: validity
Assess the strengths and weaknesses of survey design
Strengths of Survey Research
Useful in describing the characteristics of a large population.
Make large samples feasible.
Flexible - many questions can be asked on a given topic.


Weaknesses of Survey Research
Can seldom deal with the context of social life.
Inflexible in some ways.
Subject to artificiality.
Weak on validity.
State the guidelines for questionnaire construction and examples
One question at a time.
Use contingency questions when necessary.
Format matrix questions so they are easily answered.

Be aware of issues with ordering items.
Include instructions for the questionnaire if it’s going to be a self-administered questionnaire.
Pretest all or part of the questionnaire on a small group of respondents.
Interview Surveys
A data-collection encounter in which one person (an interviewer) asks questions of another (a respondent).
Probe A request for elaboration.

Discussion of general guidelines and procedures.
Specify how to handle difficult or confusing situations.
Conduct demonstration interviews.
Conduct “real” interviews.
Telephone Surveys
Advantages:
Money and time.
Control over data collection.
Disadvantages:
Surveys that are really ad campaigns.
Answering machines.
Advantages:
Money and time.
Control over data collection.
Disadvantages:
Surveys that are really ad campaigns.
Answering machines.
Self-administered surveys

Mail surveys

In-person self administered

Problems: response rates tend to be low
Mail surveys

In-person self administered

Problems: response rates tend to be low
Describe and give examples of the unobtrusive research designs.
Content analysis - examine written documents such as newspaper articles.
Analyses of existing statistics.
Historical/comparative analysis - historical records.
Give examples of topics particularly appropriate for field research.
Attitudes and behaviors best understood in a natural setting.
Social processes over time.

recognize several nuances of attitude that might escape researchers using other methods.

study of those attitudes best understood within their natural setting.

study of social processes over time.
Compare the roles that field researchers may take.
Role: occupations, family roles
Describe the main sampling techniques used by qualitative researchers
An interaction between an interviewer and a respondent in which the interviewer has a general plan of inquiry but not a specific set of questions that must be asked with particular words and in a particular order.
Describe the main types of qualitative research approaches
Naturalism
Grounded theory
Case studies and the extended case method
Institutional ethnography
Participatory action research
Address the strengths and weaknesses of field research.
Strengths of Field Research
Permits a great depth of understanding.
Flexibility - research may be modified at any time.
Inexpensive
Has more validity than surveys or experiments.
Weaknesses of Field Research
Qualitative and not appropriate for statistical descriptions of populations.
Has potential problems with reliability since field research methods are often personal.
Give examples of topics/questions appropriate for unobtrusive methods
Content analysis - examine written documents such as newspaper articles.
Analyses of existing statistics.
Historical/comparative analysis - historical records.
Give examples of content analysis in which the unit of analysis differs from the unit of observation
Content Analysis
Study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings, letters, newspapers, and laws.

Who says what to whom, when, how and for what reasons?
Illustrate the sampling techniques that researcher might use in content analysis (including the development of categories for coding).
Probability sampling techniques

But careful in choosing the units to sample

Process of transforming raw data into a standardized form.
Differentiate manifest content from latent content and describe
Manifest content - The visible, surface content. How many times a particular term or word appear in a text?

Latent content - The underlying meaning of the content. As a whole, not word for word or term by term.
Define what ethics in research means
Ethical Issues in Social Research
Voluntary participation
No harm to participants
Anonymity and confidentiality
Ethical Issues in Social Research
Deception must be justified by compelling scientific concerns.
Researchers must be honest about their findings and research.
Describe ethical issues involved in: voluntary participation, no harm to subjects, anonymity and confidentiality, the researcher’s identity, and analysis
Ethical Issues in Social Research
Voluntary participation
No harm to participants
Anonymity and confidentiality
Deception must be justified by compelling scientific concerns.
Researchers must be honest about their findings and research.
Informed Consent
Subjects in a study must base their voluntary participation on a full understanding of the possible risks involved.
Subjects in a study must base their voluntary participation on a full understanding of the possible risks involved.
Anonymity
The researcher cannot identify a given response with a given respondent.
Anonymity
The researcher cannot identify a given response with a given respondent.
Confidentiality
Researcher can identify a given person's responses but promises not to do so publicly.
Debriefing
Interviews to discover any problems generated by the research experience so they can be corrected.