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491 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the pop?
is the study group of interest
NAME
this is the stdy group of interest
population
T or F
the population has to be restricted to human subjects
false
What is a sample?
a subset of the pop
NAME
this is a subset of the pop
sample
What is the differ tbwn sample and pop? (2)
(1)sample is the subset of the pop (2)pop-is the study group of interest
What are elements?
entities that make up samples and pop
NAME
these are entities that make up samples and pop
elements
What is the primary consideration in selecting a sample?
it representativeness or external validty
What is the target pop?
is entire pop of interest
NAME
this is the entire pop of interest
target pop
What is acessible pop?
are cases from the target pop that are accessible to the researher
NAME
these are cases from the target pop that are acessible to the reseracher
accessible pop
What are the criteria for the target pop? (3)?
(1)most posses all the inclusion critera (2)must no possess the exclusion critera (3)inclusion and exclusion criteria (4)
What are the criteria for the target pop? (3)?
(1)most posses all the inclusion critera (2)must no possess the exclusion critera (3)inclusion and exclusion criteria (4)
NAME
this involves random selection of elements from the pop
probality sampling
What is the sampling error?
is the differ btwn the values obtained in the sample and the values that actually exist in the pop
NAME
this is the differ btwn the values obtained in the sample and the values that actually exist in the pop
sampling error
NAME
this represnts the degree to which the sample represents the pop
sampling error
What does the sampling error represent?
the degree to which the sample represents the pop
large sampling errors are (1)\representations of the sample
lesser
NAME
this may be due to random error or systamatic bias
sampling errors
WHat are some causes of sampling errors? (2)
(1)random error (2)systematic bias
What is random errors?
is a flaw in the sampling process
nAME
this is a flaw in the sampling process
random error
What are systematic bias?
are flaws in the sampling process
NAME
these are flaws in the sampling process
systematic bias
the sampling frame needs to use (1)
probality sampling
What is the sampling frame?
is every element in the target pop
NAME
this is every element in the target pop
sampling frame
What is probability sampling?
involves the random selection of elements from the pop
What are the types of probaility sampling? (4)
(1)simple random (2)systemtic sampling (3)stratified sampling (4)cluster sampling
NAME
these include simple random, systematic sampling, stratified sampling, and cluster sampling
probaility sampling
NAME
this is the most basic proability design
simple random
simple random is the most (1)form of probability design
simple random
Most of the complex probaility designs incorporate elements of (1)
simple random
T or F
random selection can be done w/ or out replacement
true
What is systematic sampling?
this involves the selection of every Kth case from the list
NAME
an example of this is the selection of every Kth case from the list
systematic sampling
What is systematic sampling preferable to simple random?
bc its more efficient and convenient
NAME
this is preferable to simple random bc its more efficient and convenient
systematic sampling
What is the sampling interval width?
the standard distance btwn the selected elements
NAME
this is the standard distance btwn the selected elements
sampling interval width
What is stratified random sampling?
when the pop is divided into smaller subgroups or strata
NAME
this is when the pop is divided into smaller subgroups or strata
stratified random sampling
NAME
this is used to address the issue of diversity
stratified random sampling
stratified random sampling is used to address the (1)
issue of diveristy
NAME
this ehances the chance for sample respresentation
stratified random sampling
Stratified random sampling enhances the chance for (1)
sample representation
NAME
this increases homgeneity on predetermiend characteristics
stratified random sampling
stratified random sampling increases (1)
homogeneity on the predetermined chacteristics
When are clusters used?
when a complete listing of th elements are not available
NAME
this used when the complete listing of the elements are not available
clusters
NAME
this is the most common procedure for large scale surveys
cluster
cluster is the most (1)for large scale surveys
common procedure
What does sussucfil random sampling of units start w ?
administrative units as states, cities, census tracts, and households
Cluster sampling is also called (1)
multistage sampling
(1)is also called multistage sampling
cluster
What is cluster sampling?
involves successive series of random sampling of units beginning w the large units or clusters in which smaller sampling is contained
NAME
this involves successive series of random sampling of units beginning w large units or clusters in which the smaller sampling is contained
cluster sampling
When is a cluster sampling used?
when a complete listing of the elements are not available
NAME
this is used when a complete listing of the elements are avialable
cluster sampling
NAME
this is the most common sampling for large scale surveys
cluster
Cluster sampling is the most common sampling for (1)
large scale surveys
T or F
nonprobaility sampling is random
false
Is nonprobaility sampling random?
no
Nonproability sampling is (1)
nonrandom
What is non-probability sampling?
is nonrandom methods that are used to obtain a sample
NAME
this is nonrandom methods that are used to obtain a sample
non-probability sampling
When is non-probability sampling used? (2)
(1)when the parameters of a sample are unknown (2)when a sampling frame is not feasible
NAME
this is when the parameters of sample are unknown or when a sampling frame is not feasible
non-probaility sampling
When is non-probability sampling used? (2)
(1)when the parameters of a sample are unknown (2)when a sampling frame is not feasible
What is one way to disclose limitations on nonprobaility sampling?
attain as much as representations as possible
What are some types of non=probability sampling?
(1)convenience sampling (2)purposive sampling (3)snowball sampling (4)quota sampling
NAME
some types of this sampling include convenience sampling, purposive sampling, and quota sampling
non-probability sampling
Draw a chart of boundary settings in experimental type designs
see notes
Draw a chart of boundary settings in experimental type designs
see notes
Draw a chart of boundary settings in experimental type designs
see notes
What is convenience sampling?
involves the enrollment of available subjects as they enter the study until the desired sample size is reached
NAME
this involves the enrollment of available subjects as they enter the study until the desired sample size is reached
convenience sampling
Convenience sampling is also called (1)
accidental sampling
(1)is also called accidental sampling
convenience sampling
NAME
this is the most conveniently available people in the study
convenience sampling
Convenience sampling risks (1)and (2)
bias and erroneous findings
What are some cons of convenience sampling? (2)
(1)risks bias and errroneous findings (2)cation in interpreting findings and generlizing results
NAME
this is the weakest form of sampling for quantitative studies
convenience sampling
Convenience sampling is the (1)form of sampling for quantitative studies
convenience sampling
What is purposive sampling?
involves the deliberate selection of individuals by the researcher based on predefined criteria
NAME
this involves the deliberate selection of individuals by the researcher based on predefined criteria
purposive sampling
Purposive sampling is also called (1)
judgmental sampling
(1)is also called judgmental sampling
purposive sampling
NAME
this based on the researchers knowledge of the pop the sample is hand picked
purposive sampling
Purposive sampling is based on the researchers knowledge of the (1)
pop sample that is hand picked
What is snowballing sample?
is when sample participants are asked to refer others to the study
NAME
this is when sample participants are asked to refer to others to the study
snowballing sampling
Purposive sampling involves puprposeful selection of study particpants based on (1)
predefiend criteria
Purposive judgement is also used for (1)
nataralistc reserach
T or F
purposive judgemental is also used for naturalstic reserach
purposive sampling
What is one flaw of purposive sampling?
no extgernal validty or objective method for assessing the typicalness of the selected subjects
NAME
this has no external validy or objective method for assessing the typicalness of the selected subjects
purposive sampling
What is quota sampling?
is used to obtain different portions of subject types who may be underrepresented bu using convenience sampling or purposive sampling
NAME
this is used to obtain different portions of subject types who may be underrepresented by using convenience or purposive sampling
quota sampling
Quota sampling is often used in (1)
market research
NAME
this is often used in market research
quota sampling
What is the goal of the quota?
to select a sample w elements in proprotion similar to population
NAME
this is used to select a sample w element in proprotion simlar to pop
quota sampling
in a quota sampling,who determines the strata of the pop and specifies the number of elements needed
researcher
What quota sampling what does the researcher do?
determines the strata of the pop and specifies the number of elements needed
in quota sampling, uses knowledge about the pop to build (1)
repreresentativness in the sampling plan
What is one benefit of probailtiy sampling?
allow for comparison of sample to the pop
NAME
this allows for the comparision of sample to the pop
probaility sampling
What are (5)steps to comparing a sample population?
(1)state hypothesis (2)select the level of significance (3)compute calculated stastical value (4)obtain a critical value (5)accept or fail to accept null hypothesis
What are (5)steps to comparing a sample population?
(1)state hypothesis (2)select the level of significance (3)compute calculated stastical value (4)obtain a critical value (5)accept or fail to accept null hypothesis
NAME
this implies that the value obtained on a measure would have been obtained in other samples from the same pop
hypothesis used to compare sample pop
What is the siginificance level?
is the rejection of the null hypothesis w a certain degree of certainty that there is a difference btwn the sample and the pop
experimental designs increase (1)
external validty
NAMe
this type of design increases the external validty
experimental designs
T or F
determing the sample size is an simple equation
false
When determing the sample size use the (1)possiblw
largest sample size
What is the power analysis?
is used by advanced researchers to estimate how large a sample should be to adequately test the hypothesis
NAME
this is used by advanced researchers to estimate how large a sample should be to adequately test the hypothesis
power analysis
What is statistical power?
is the probability of identifying a significant differences if one exists
NAME
this is the probaility of id a signifcant differences if one exists
statistical power
Statistical power of (1)in the min level of acceptability
80%
Statistical power of 80% in the (1)level of acceptability
min
What is the min level of acceptabiltiy?
80%
What is the effect size?
is the strength of the differences in the sample
NAME
this is the strength of the diferences in the sample
effect size
NAME
this involves rules for assigining numeric values to the qualities of objects to designate quanity to a attirbute
measurement
measurement involves rules for assigning (1)to (2)
numeric values to the qualities of objects to the designate quanity to a attirubte
What is one pro of measurement?
removes guesswork in gathering information
NAME
this removes guesswork in gathering info
pro of measurement
What is validity in measurement?
the degree to which an instrument measures what is is supposed to
NAME
this is the degree to which an instrument measures what is is supposed to
validity in measurement
what is reliability in measurement?
is the consistency w which an instrument measures the attribute
NAME
this is the consistency to which an instrument measures the attritbute
reliability
a measure that is not reliable cannot be (1)
valid
T or F
a highly reliable measure means that is it valid
true
T or F
Values and scores from the best instruments have certain amount of error
true
What are (2)measurements used in quantitative data?
(1)obtained scores (2)true score
NAME
these are two measurements used in quantitative data
quantitative data
What are (2)measurements used in quantitative data?
1)obtained scores (2)true score
obtained data is also called (1)
HR
(1)is also called obtained data
HR
hypothetical is also called (1)
true score
true score is also called (1)
hypothetical
What is the error of measurement?
is the difference btnw the two scores as a result of extraneous factors
NAME
this is the differ btwn the two scores as a result of extraneous factors
measurements
What are some differ factors that may contribute to errors of measurement?(5)
(1)situational contaminants (2)response set biases (3)transitory personal factors (4)administration variation (5)item sampling
What are some differ factors that may contribute to errors of measurement?(5)
(1)situational contaminants (2)response set biases (3)transitory personal factors (4)administration variation (5)item sampling
What are some differ factors that may contribute to errors of measurement?(5)
(1)situational contaminants (2)response set biases (3)transitory personal factors (4)administration variation (5)item sampling
WHat are situational contaminants?
is the awarenes of an observer and time of day
NAME
this is the awareness of an observe and time of day
situational contaminants
What are some ways responses can bias?
(1)people give extreme responses (2)acquiscence response
What is acquiscence response?
are people that say no or y for everyone thing
NAME
these refers to responsders say no or yes to everything
acquiscence response
What are transitory personal facotrs?
refers to fatigue and hunger
nAME
these refer to fatigue and hunger
transitory personal factors
How might administration variation contribute to errors in measurement?
alteration in the collection of the data
How can item sampling contribute to errors in measurement?
researchers select which question to use
What are measurement scales?(3)
(1)likert type scales (2)Guttman scale (3)semantic differential
What are measurement scales?(3)
(1)likert type scales (2)Guttman scale (3)semantic differential
NAME
these include Likert type scales, Guttman scale, and semantic differential
measurement scales
What is the Likert type scale?
is when the reseracher develops a series of worded favorably and unfavorably regrading the underlying construct that is to be assessed
NAME
this is when the researcher develops a series of worded favorably and unfavorably regrading the underlying construct that is to be assessed
Likert type scale
What is Guttman Scale?
is when the researcher develops a small number of items that relate to one concept
NAME
this is when the researcher develops a small number of items that relate to one concept
Guttman scale
What semantic differential scale?
is usally used for psychological measures to assess attitudes and beliefs
NAME
this is usally used for psychological measures to assess attitudes and beliefs
semantic differential scale
What is the researcher's goal in naturalistic design? (2)
to experience and understand the phenomena w.out manipulating (2)observe, understand, and come to know so the theory may be described, explained or generated
What is the researcher's goal in naturalistic design? (2)
to experience and understand the phenomena w.out manipulating (2)observe, understand, and come to know so the theory may be described, explained or generated
What are the (10)designs in Naturalistic designs?
(1)Endogenous (2)participatory action (3)critical theory (4)phenmenology (5)heuristic (6)ethnrography (7)narrative (8)life history (9)grounded theory (10)meta-analysis
What are the (10)designs in Naturalistic designs?
(1)Endogenous (2)participatory action (3)critical theory (4)phenmenology (5)heuristic (6)ethnrography (7)narrative (8)life history (9)grounded theory (10)meta-analysis
What are the (10)designs in Naturalistic designs?
(1)Endogenous (2)participatory action (3)critical theory (4)phenmenology (5)heuristic (6)ethnrography (7)narrative (8)life history (9)grounded theory (10)meta-analysis
What is endogenous research?
is when the researches are the insiders of the culture and use their own epistemology and their own structure of revelance
NAME
this naturalistic design is when the researchers are the insiders of the culture and use their own epistemology and their own structure of revelence
endogenous research
NAME
this naturalistic design represents an open ended approach to the naturalistic traditions
endogenous research
Endogenous research represents an (1)
open ended question to the naturalistic traditions
In Endogenous research, the researchers are the (1)
insiders or subjects
In endogenous research, the subjects works as (1)
primary investigators or coinvestigatorss
In Endogenous research, the researchers are the (1)
insiders or subjects
In endogenous research, the subjects works as (1)
primary investigators or coinvestigatorss
Why is endogenous research naturalistic?
bc knowledge emerges from the indivudals
Endogenous research is consistant w (1)
emanicpatory research
NAME
this type of research is consistant w emanicipatroy research
endogenous research
In endogenous research, indivudals are viewed as the (1)
leaders of the generation of knowledge
NAME
in this type of research indivudals are viewed as the leaders of the generation of knowledge
endogenous research
NAME
this type of research rejects the notion of research subjects
endogenous research
What is endogenous research based on?
Kurt Lewin's proposition of that the "knowing power" comes exclusively to the persons who are the subjects of the inquiry
NAME
this research is based on Kurt Lewin's proposition that the "knowing power" comes exclusively to the persons who are the subjects of the inquiry
endogenous research
Who is Kurt Lewin?
came up w the endogenous research
NAME
he came up w endogenous research
Kurt Lewin
What is the participatory action research?
refers to the differ types of action research approaches
NAME
this refers to the differ types of action research approaches
participatory research
What are (4)principles of action research?
(1)democracy (2)equity (3)liberation (4)life enhancement
NAME
this has (4)main principles--democracy, equity, liberation, and life ehancement
action research
What is assumption of action research?
that those who experience a phenomenon are the most qualified to investigate it
NAME
one assumption of this research is that those who experience a phenomenon are the most qualified to investigate it
action research
NAME
in this type of research particpants are involved in designing, conducting, and reporting the research
action research
What is action research?
is when the particpants are involved in designing, conducting, and reporting research
NAME
this is when the particpants are involved in designing, conducting, and reporting the research
action research
What does PAR stand for?
participatory action research
What is the purpose of PAR? (2)
generate knowledge about an issue in a community or group to generate a responsive action or to enact solutions to community problems
NAME
the purpose of this type of research is to generate knowledge about an issue in a community or group to generate a responsive action or enact solutions to a community problem
PAR
What is the critical theory?
is a complex set of strategies that are united by a common purpose to understand the human experience in context sociopolitical oppression as a means to change the world
NAME
this is a complex set of strategies that are united by a common purpose to understand the human experience in context of sociopolitical opression as a means to change the world
critical theory
What is participatory action design?
is used to generate knowledge to inform action
NAME
this is used to generate knowledge to inform action
participatory action
What is the critical theory?
is used to understand experience s for social change
NAME
this is used to understand experience for social change
critical theory
What phenmenology?
is used to discover the meaning of a lived experience
NAME
this used to discover the meaning of a lived experience
phenomenology
What is heuristic?
is used to reveal personal and lived experience
NAME
this is used to reveal persnal and lived experience
heuristic
What is ethnography?
is used to understand culture
NAME
this is used to understand culture
ethnography
What is narrative design?
is used to understand stories of marginalized individuals
NAME
this is used to understand stories o marginalized indivudals
narrative design
What is life history design?
is used to yield stories of marginzalized individuals
NAME
this is used to yield stories marginzalized indivudals
life history design
What is grounded theory design?
is used to generate theory
NAME
this design is used to generate theory
grounded theory
What meta-analysis design?
is used to synthesize body of knowledge
NAME
this design is used to synthesize body of knowledge
meta-analysis design
What does posit mean?
means that there is more than one way of knowing about a phenomena
NAME
this means that there is more than one way of knowing about a phenomena
posit
What is the hallmark of critical theory ?(3)
(1)social change (2) empowerment of marginalized (3) oppressed people
NAME
the hallmark of this theory is social change, empowerment of marginalized and oppressed people
critical theory
NAME
this naturalistic design seeks to understand the meaning of a lived experience
phenomenology
In phenomenology, how does the interpretation of the meaning emerge?
it emerges from the info recieved
What is the main data source of phenomenology?
are in depth converstaions btwn the researcher and informant
NAME
the main data source for this naturalistic design are in depth conservations btwn the researcher and the informant
phenmenology
What is ethnography derivied from?
this is derived from the discipline of anthropology
NAME
this is derived from the discipline of anthropology
ethnography
What does ethnographic literally mean?
portrait of a people
NAME
this means "portriat of people"
ethnographic
Emic approach should be used (1)culture
w/in
NAME
this approach should be used w/in the culture
emic
Etic approach should be used (1)culture
outside
NAME
this approach should be used outside the culture
etic
What are (2)things that ethnography provides people w?
(1)provides knowledge on providing cultural specific care (2)provides a mechanism for studying cultures
NAME
this provides knowledge on providing cultural specific care and provides a mechanism for studying cultures
ethnography
Where was the basis for the grounded theory?
emerged from the discipline of sociology
NAME
this emerged from the discipline of sociology
grounded theory
What is the the focus of the grounded theory?
is the evolution of social processes and social structures
NAME
this is the evolution of social processes and social structures
grounded theory
NAME
this provides a means to transcend a phenomenon from the descriptive phase to the understanding prcoess
grounded theory
the grounded theory provides a means to transcend a phenomenon from the (1)to the (2)
(1)descriptive phase (2)understanding the process
In grounded theory, how is meaning expressed?
is expressed in terms of symbols such as words, religious objects, and clothing
NAME
this design is expressed in terms of symbols such as words, religious objects, and clothing
grounded theory
what type of qualitative tradition would guide the following inquiry of the following question?

(1)what is the social psychological processes experienced by couples experiencing infertility?
look up
what type of qualitative tradition would guide the following inquiry of the following question?

(1)How does the culture of suicide survivors' self help group contribute to the grieving process?
look up
what type of qualitative tradition would guide the following inquiry of the following question?

(1)what is the lived experience of the spousal caretaker of an alzheimer patient?
phenmenology design
What are some reasons to set study boundaries?(2)
(1)to make study manageable (2)limit the study to a particular group, setting or phenomena
NAME
this is used to make the study manageable and to limit the study to a particular group, setting, or phenomena
study boundaries
In experimental type designs, when are set boundaries used?
before the beginning of the study
NAME
in this type of research, set boundaries are used prior to the beginning of the study
experimental research
What are (3)ways of setting boundaries in experimental research?
through the use of the (1)concepts that will be operationalized (2)inclusion and exclusion criteria (3)developing a sample plan
NAME
in this type of research, the setting boundaries are made through the use of concepts that will be operationalized, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and by developing a sample plan
experimental research
In naturalistic design, when are boundary setting used?
through the the study
NAME
in this type of research, the boundary settings are used throughout the study
naturalistic research
What consequences of boundary settings in experimental research?
external vailidty
What is external validty?
is the ability of the researcher to generate the findings from a study sample
NAME
this is the ability of the researcher to generate the findings from a study sample
external validty
What does are (2)things taht the strength of the boundary setting depend on?
(1)appropriateness (2)adequacy
NAME
the strength of this depends on the approopriatenesss and adequacy
boundary settings
What is appropriateness?
is the extent that the method of bounding the study fits the overall purpose
NAME
this is the extend that the method of bounding the study fits the overall purpose
appropriateness
What is adequacy?
is the extent that boundary settings yields sufficient info to answer the research question
is the extent that boundary settings yields sufficient info to answer the research question
adequecy
What is the differ btwn appropriateness and adequecy ?
(1)adequecy=is the extent that boundary settings yields sufficient info to answer the research question (2)appropriateness=is the extent that the method of bounding the study fits the overall purpose
What is the differ btwn boundary settings in experimental and naturalsitic research?
(1)experimental-boundary settings are used before the study (2)naturalistic-boundary settings are used throughout the study
What is the differ btwn boundary settings in experimental and naturalsitic research?
(1)experimental-boundary settings are used before the study (2)naturalistic-boundary settings are used throughout the study
What are some ways to set up boundaries settings in naturalistic design? (4)
(1)geographical location (2)culture groups such as customs, locations, culture defined loosely (3)personal experince (4)concepts
What are some ways to set up boundaries settings in naturalistic design? (4)
(1)geographical location (2)culture groups such as customs, locations, culture defined loosely (3)personal experince (4)concepts
NAME
in this type of reserach, setting boundaries are set up in the following ways: (1)geographical location (2)culture groups such as customs, locations, culture defined loosely (3)personal experince (4)concepts
naturalstic
What are some strategies for selecting study participants in a naturalistic study?
(1)max variation (2)homogenous selection (3)theory-based selction
What is homogeneous selection?
is when particpants have similar experiences
NAME
this refers to when the particapnts have similar experiences
homogeneous selction
What is max variation?
when participants vary in experiences along a dimension
NAME
this is when participants vary in experiences along a dimension
max variation
T or F
there is no specific rule in naturalistic inquiry regarding the number of participants
true
T or F
representative sample implies external validity rather a comprehensive understanding of what is typical of a particular group
false
What does the nature of the information gathering process in naturalistic design depend on?
the nature of the investigator involvement w the participants
in naturalistic study, the investigator acts as the (1)
data-gathering instrument
NAME
in this type of study, the investigator acts as the data-gathering instrument
naturalistic study
What are some multiple information gathering strategies in a naturalistic study? (2)
(1)no standard approach (2)depends on the research question and design--ex observations or interviews
What is the reflexive process?
is analyzing and comparing collected info
NAME
this is analyzing and comparing collected info
reflexive process
the processs of information gathering in a naturalistic study is a (1)and (2)
ongoing and reflexive
NAME
the process of info gathering for this type of study is ongoing and reflexive process
naturalistic
the processs of information gathering in a naturalistic study is a (1)and (2)
ongoing and reflexive
What are some information gathering strategies that can be used in a naturalistic design? (2)
(1)watching and listening though observation (2)asking through informal and open-ended conversation and focused interviews
What are some information gathering strategies that can be used in a naturalistic design? (2)
(1)watching and listening though observation (2)asking through informal and open-ended conversation and focused interviews
What are some components of asking?(4)
(1)acess (2)description of questions or what you are doing (3)focus (4)verification (checking accuracy of impressions w the informants)
What is triangulation?
is using multiple methods to obtain info
NAME
this is using multiple methods to obtain info
triangulation
What is saturation?
is when no new info is obtained bc there is sufficient info obtained to understand a phenemonemn
NAME
this is when no new info is obtained bc sufficent info is obtained to understand the phememonemn
saturation
What is member checking?
is when the accuracy of the investigator's observation is confirmed though the use of one or more other informants
NAME
this is when the accuracy of the investigator's observation is confirmed though the use of one or more other informants
member checking
What is reflexivity?
this is when the investigator self-reflects on any any bias or things that impacted the the data collection and interpretation
NAME
this is when the investigator self-reflects on any any bias or things that impacted the the data collection and interpretation
refkexicity
What is the adult trail?
xinterrator reability
NAME
this is a discription of the method and process of the data independently to determine interrator reability
adult trail
T or F
there is a unverisal strategies for qualitative anaylsis
false
What are the stages of naturalistic analysis? (2)
(1)stage one= analysis in the field through thinking process, and development of categories or taxonomies, and discovering underlying themes (2)stage two= report preparation through consolidation the investigation in a manuscripts or book
What are the stages of naturalistic analysis? (2)
(1)stage one= analysis in the field through thinking process, and development of categories or taxonomies, and discovering underlying themes (2)stage two= report preparation through consolidation the investigation in a manuscripts or book
What are the stages of naturalistic analysis? (2)
(1)stage one= analysis in the field through thinking process, and development of categories or taxonomies, and discovering underlying themes (2)stage two= report preparation through consolidation the investigation in a manuscripts or book
What is taxonomy?
is a system of categories and relationships
NAME
this is a system of categories and relationships
taxonomy
What are some levels of measurement?(4)
(1)nominal (2)ordinal (3)interval (4)ration
NAME
some levels of this include nominal, ordinal, interval, and ration
measurement
What is nominal variable?
is categorical data
NAME
this refers categorical data
nominal
What is ordinal data?
is numerical values
NAME
this numerical values
ordinal data
What is the differ btwn nominal and ordinal data?
(1)nominal=is categorical data (2)ordinal=is numerical data
What is the differ btwn nominal and ordinal data?
(1)nominal=is categorical data (2)ordinal=is numerical data
What is the differ btwn nominal and ordinal data?
(1)nominal=is categorical data (2)ordinal=is numerical data
NAME TYPE OF DATA

yes or no
nominal data
NAME TYPE OF DATA
male or female
nominal data
NAME TYPE OF DATA
Caucasion, African American, Hispanic, or Asian
nominal data
What is ratio?
has an abosulte zero point meaning any value above 0
NAME
this refers to any value above 0
ratio
NAME TYPE OF DATA
income ex $100,000
ratio
What are some measurement scales in experimental research?(3)
(1)likert-type scale (2)Guttman scale (3)semantic differential scale
What are some measurement scales in experimental research?(3)
(1)likert-type scale (2)Guttman scale (3)semantic differential scale
NAME
these include Likert-type scale, Guttman scale, and semantic differential scale
measurement scales in experimental research
What is the Likert-type scale ?
is when the researcher develops a series of items worded favorably and unfavorably regarding the underlying construct that is being assessed
NAME
this is when the researcher develops a series of items worded favorably and unfavorably regarding the underlying contruct that is being asssessed
Likert-type scale
What is Guttman scale?
is when the researcher develops a small number of items that relate to one concept
NAME
this is when the researcher develops a small number of items that relate to one concept
Guttman scale
What is semantic differential scale?
is usally used for psychological measures to assess attitudes and beliefs
NAME
this is usally used for psychological measures to assess attiudes and beleifs
semantic differential scale
What is reliability?
refers to the extent to which you can rely on the results obtained from an instrument
NAME
this refers to the extent to which you can rely on the results obtained from an instrument
reliability
What are some confidence instruments used in experimental studies?
(1)reliability (2)stabiltiy (3)tests of internal consistency (4)equivalance
NAME
these can be used to test this: (1)reliability (2)stability (3)tests of internal consistency (4)equivalance
confidence instruments in experimental reserach
What is inter-rate reliability?
involves the comparison of two observers measuring the same event
NAME
this involves the comparision of two observers measuring the same event
inter-rate reliabiltiy
NAME
this tests equivlance
inter-rater reliability
What are systematic error?
refers to bias or any errors that occurs
nAME
this refers to bias or any errors that occurs
systematic error
What are (3)types of validity ?
(1)content validity (2)criterion validity (3)predictive validity
nAME
some type of this include content, criterion, and predicitive
validity
What is content validity?
this type of validity addresses the degree to which the indicator reflects the basic content of the phenomenon or domain of interest
NAME
this type of validity addresses the degree to which the indicator reflects the basic content of the phenomenon or domain or interest
content validity
What is criterion validity?
involves demonstrating a correlation or relationship btwn the measurement of interest and another instrument or standard that has been show to be accurate
NAME
this involves demonstrating a correlation btwn the meaurement of interest or standard that has been shown to be accurate
criterion validity
What is predicitive validity?
is used when the purpose of the instrument is to predict or estimate the occurance of a behavior or event
nAME
this is when the purpose of the instrument is to predict or estimate the occurance of a behavior or event
predicitive validity
What is construct validity?
is used when an investigator has developed a theoretical rational underlying the test instrument
NAME
this is used when an investigator has developed a theoretical rational underlying the test instrument
construct validity
What are some ways to test the sources from which you are getting your information from (or informational sources)?
(1)self-report (2)proxy (3)direct observations (4)chart extractions
NAME
some ways to test this include self report, proxy, direct observations, and chart extractions
informational sources or where you got your info from
STOPED HERE
STOPPED HERE
T or F
all research directly involving people has potential risk to the particpants
true
What are the federal laws regarding protection of human subjects?
(1)federal law requires that researchers submit a proposal regarding the ethical conduct of any study involving humans to a group of lay and scientific people to IRB to review
Federal laws regarding protection of human subjects require that researchers submit (1)involving humans to a group of lay and sceintific people
propsal regarding the ethical conduct of any study
What are some ways to protect the human subjects?(4)
(1)to have a level of risk and the risk benfit ratio (2)full disclosure of into (3)study participation is voluntary (4)confidentiality
What are some ways to protect the human subjects?(4)
(1)to have a level of risk and the risk benfit ratio (2)full disclosure of into (3)study participation is voluntary (4)confidentiality
What is full disclosure?
means that the researcher must share w the participants all info regarding the type and content, and risks
NAME
this means that the researcher must share w the particpants the type and content of the interviews, time involved, content, data, collection procedures, risk, and benefits, plan for remedation for risk
full disclosure
What is confidentiality?
this means that no one besides those directly involved in the research team and those disclosed may have acess to the data info cannot be linked to the particapnts
NAME
this means that no one besides those directly involved in the research team and those disclosed may have acess to the data info cannot be linked to the particapnts
confidentiality
NAME
this is when the participation is strictly voluntary
voluntary paricipation
What are some ways to ensure confidentiality? (6)
(1)remove the names of the respondents (2)assigment of id numbers for particpants (3)audio and video recording transcripts do not reveal names (4)destroying audio and video recording or storing in a locked cabint w restricted access (5)modifying key idying info so that there are no direct link (6)controversial or sensitive data may require speacil consideration
What are some ways to ensure confidentiality? (6)
(1)remove the names of the respondents (2)assigment of id numbers for particpants (3)audio and video recording transcripts do not reveal names (4)destroying audio and video recording or storing in a locked cabint w restricted access (5)modifying key idying info so that there are no direct link (6)controversial or sensitive data may require speacil consideration
What does HIPAA stand for?
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
What does the HIPAA say?(3)
(1)all health info collected for a study should be "de-id" (2)all health info used in a study should be disclosed in the consent form prior to entering the study (3)researchers cannot recruit directly unless the individual has given prior consent for such as contact to be made
What does the HIPAA say?(3)
(1)all health info collected for a study should be "de-id" (2)all health info used in a study should be disclosed in the consent form prior to entering the study (3)researchers cannot recruit directly unless the individual has given prior consent for such as contact to be made
What are some right of people in voluntary participation?
(1)indivudals have the right to refuse (2)can withdraw any time during the study (3)can refuse to answer any particular questions or particpate in a certain part
What are some right of people in voluntary participation?
(1)indivudals have the right to refuse (2)can withdraw any time during the study (3)can refuse to answer any particular questions or particpate in a certain part
NAME
this was developed in response to human right violations
code of ethics
NAME
this was developed after the Nazi atrocities of the 1930s and 1940s
Nuremburg code
The Nuremburg code was developed after the (1)
Nazi atrocities of the 1930s and 1940s
T or F
most disciplines have their own code of ethics
true
What is the National reserach act?
created a commission to develop ethical guidelines for the involvement of humans in studies in the US
NAME
this act created a commission to develop ethical guidelines for the involvement of humans in studies in the US
National Research Act
What are (3)basic ethical considerations for the involvement of humans in research?
(1)full disclosure (2)ensure confidentiality of all info (3)voluntary participation
What are (3)basic ethical considerations for the involvement of humans in research?
(1)full disclosure (2)ensure confidentiality of all info (3)voluntary participation
NAME
this involves three things: (1)full disclosure (2)ensure confidentiality of all info (3)voluntary participation
3 basic ethical considerations for research involving humans
What is the Belmont report?
involved the creation of the National Research Act
NAME
this involved the creation of the National Research Act
Belmont report
What was the National Research Act created? (2)
in response to the (1)nuermberg war crime trials (2)Tuskegee experiments
NAME
this was created in response to the Nuremburg war crime trials and Tuskegee experiments
National Research Act
What are (3)primary ethical principles on which ethical conduct is based?
(1)respect for human dignity (2)Beneficine (3)Justice
NAME
this is based on three things: respect for human dignity, benefince, and justice
primary ethical principles on which ethical conduct is based
What are (3)primary ethical principles on which ethical conduct is based?
(1)respect for human dignity (2)Beneficine (3)Justice
What are some principles of respect for human dignity?
(1)right to self-determination (2)right to full disclosure (3)informed consent
NAME
this is composed of these prinicples: right to self-determination, right to full disclosure, and informed consent
human dignitiy
What is the right to self-determination?
is that all participants have the right to decide voluntary whether they want to praticpate in the study
the right to (1) is the right that all particpants have the right to decide if they particpate in the study or not
self-determination
What are some principles of beneficence?(3)
(1)freedom from harm (2)freedom from exploitation (3)risk/benefit ration-are the risk to the participants proportionate to the benefit to society
NAME
some principles of this include(1)freedom from harm (2)freedom from exploitation (3)risk/benefit ration-are the risk to the participants proportionate to the benefit to society
beneficence
What is beneficence?
"above all do no harm"
NAME
this means "above all do no harm"
beneficence
NAME
this means people should be treated equally
Justice
NAME
this is the right to fair treatment
jusitce
What is justice?
the right to fair treatment
What are the (3)levels of IRB?
(1)full (2)expedited (3)exempt
NAME
this has (3)levels: full, expedited, and excepmpt
IRB
What is the full level of IRB?
is research involving vulnerable pops such as infants, children, pregrant women, prisoners, mentally incompetent
NAME
this levels of IRB is research involving vulnerable populations such as infants, children, pregrant women, prisoners, and mentally incompetent
full level
What is the expedited level of IRB?
is research that has minimal risks to participants 18 yrs or older
NAME
this is research that has minimal risks to participants 18 yrs or older
expedited level of IRB
What is the exempt level of IRB?
research that involves no formal review
NAME
this level of IRB --the research involves no formal review
exempt level of IRB
What does EVP stand for?
evidence-based practice
What does EVP stand for?
is a model of professional pracitice which draw heavily on research to inform practice
nAME
this is a model of professional pracitice which draws heavily on research to inform practice
EVP
NAME
this is a theory based or thoery generating
sceince
What are some types of reasoning that science developed from?
(1)inducitve, (2)deductive (3)abductive (4)action processes
NAME
this developed systematically using inductive, deductive, or abductive reasoning and action processes
science
NAME
this is detailed evidence on which knowledge claims are based
science
traditional evidence is grounded in the assumption of a (1)
hierachy of evidence
What are (4)steps to applying evidence to practice?
(1)review of the literature (2)rating the evidence (3)developing clinical guidelines (4)applying guidelines to clinical settings
NAME
this has (4)steps: review of the literature, rating the evidence, developing clinical guidlines, and applying guidlines to clinical settings
applying evidence to practice
WHat are some examples of rating systems in EBP? (3)
(1)ABCD system (2)1-2-3 system (3)I-II-III system
clinical trial is also called (1)
RCT
(1)is also called RCT
clinical trail
NAME
some examples of this include the ABCD, 1-2-3, and I-II-III systems
evidence based practice
T or F
ways of knowing and understanding human problems are not always amenable to RCTs
true
What is an assumption of RCT?
that the RCT is the only valid design to generate a knowledge useful in clinical practice
NAME
one assumption of this is that that the RCT is the only valid design to generate a knowledge useful in clinical practice
RCT
EBP involves the application of (1)to (2)
group data to individual cases
NAME
this involves the application of group data to individual cases
EBP
EBP involves the application of (1)to (2)
group data to individual cases
What is a prospective study?
is a study that describes a phenomena or event that is presently occuring or unfolding over time
NAME
this is a study that describes a phenomena or event that is presently occuring or unfolding over time
prospective study
What is the differ btwn a prospective and retrospective study? (2)
(1)prospective study is a study that describes a phenomena or event that is presently occuring or unfolding over time (2)retrospective study=describes and examines a phenomena or event that has already occured
What is a retrospective study?
describes and examines a phenomena or event that has already occured
NAME
this type of study describes and examines a phenomena or event that already has occured
retrospective study
Why do we evaluate our clinical practice?
to see if treatments are affective
What is meta-anaylsis?
compares different studies to see how effective they are
NAME
this compares different studies to see how effective they are
meta=anaylsis
Look at the chart and answer the following questions
(1)On the average, the "student drivers" perceived which behavior as being the least risky?
a and b
Look at the chart and answer the following questions
(1)On the average, did the "student drivers" or "traffic violators" perceive drunk driving as being more risky?
look at how they did data and the mean. the highest mean is the answer

student drivers
Look at the chart and answer the following questions
(1)Regrading drunk driving is the difference btwn the "student drivers" and the "traffic violators" statistically significant?
yes bc less than .05
Look at the chart and answer the following questions

(1)Regarding the "risk of distracted driving" is the difference btwn the "student drivers" and the "traffic violators" statistically significant"?
no
Look at the chart and answer the following questions
(1)How many of the different tables in Table 1 are not statistically significant?
e and d
How do you tell if data is statistically significant?
has to be less than .05
How do you tell if data is statistically significant?
has to be less than .05
if the p level is less than .05 the data is(1)
statistically significant
If the p level is greater than .05 the data is (1)
no statistically signifcant
How do you tell when the data is NOT statistically significant?
the p value is greater than .05
the hawthrone effect is also called the (1)
halio affect
(1)is also called the halio effect
hawthrone effect
NAME
if all of the people drop of a study..what is this called
mortality
What is the hawthrone effect?
is when during a study, the participants experiences change their thoughts or views
NAME
this is when during a study, the participants experiences change their thoughts or views
hawthrone effect
What is ertrography?
is trying to explain culture
nAME
this naturalistic desgin tries to explain culture
ertrogprahy
NAME
this design develops theories using constant-comparison theories
grounded theory
What is ordinal?
refers to rankings
NAME
this refers to rankings
ordinal
Give an example of ordinal data
the rankings in the military
officer
sergeant
general
NAME TYPE OF DATA
officer
sergeant
general
ordinal
NAME TYPE OF DATA
President
Vice-president
etc
ordinal
NAME TYPE OF DATA
ex likert scale
ordinal
NAME TYPE OF DATA
temperature
interval
when you collect data in one time it is called (1)
cross sectional study
When you collect data more than one time it is called (1)
longitudinal study
What is the differ btwn a cross sectional and longitudinal study?
(1)cross sectional-the data is collected on time (2)longitudinal study-the data is collected over more than one time
What is longitudinal study?
is when the data is collected more than once or over a period of time
NAME
this when the data is collected more than once or over a period of time
longitudinal study
What is cross-sectional study?
is when the data is collected jst one time
NAME
this type of study is when the data is collected jst one time
cross-sectional study
What is the least desirable type of sampling?
convenience sampling
NAME
this is the least desirable type of sampling
convenience sampling
What is the most desirable type of sampling?
random sampling
NAME
this is the most desirable type of sampling
random sampling
What type of study should use saturation?
experimental
What type of study uses the emic/etic?
naturalstic
What type of research codes data using a p value?
experimental
What type of reserach uses variables?
experimental
What are recursive methods of data collection?
are ways of collecting data
NAME
this are ways of collecting data
recursive methods of collecting data
What is EBP?
this involves looking at evidence to make a clinical decision
\
NAME
this is usually experimental research that tests or backs up what your doing in the clinical settings
EBP
What is the debate w EBP?
is what evidence should you use in a study
What is HIPPA?
protects people's medical history
NAME
this protects people's medical history
HIPPA
What does RCT stand for?
randomized controlled trials
What does NGC stand for?
national guideline Clearing house
What does AHRQ stand for?
Agency for health care research and quality
What are some places that health professionals can go to if they need help, want to see the evidence, or provide back for what they are doing in the clincal setting? (2)
(1)NGC (2)AHRQ
What are some places that health professionals can go to if they need help, want to see the evidence, or provide back for what they are doing in the clincal setting? (2)
(1)NGC (2)AHRQ
What is EBP?
this involves looking at evidence to make a clinical decision
\
What is one assumption in the traditional approach grounded in??
tradition approach means EBP

says that exp research is the best type way to test things