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### 25 Cards in this Set

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 What are in vivo measurements? Measurements taken in or on a living organism What are in vitro measurements? Measurements performed outside an organisms body What is sampling error? The tendency for statistics to fluctuate from one sample to another What is point estimation? Using sample data to calculate a single value What is null hypothesis? The hypothesis that no significant difference exists between groups What is confidence interval? A range of values around the mean, usually 95-99% What is a type 1 error? Rejecting a null hypothesis that is true. A "false positive" What is the most frequently used alpha? .05 and .01 What is a two-tailed test? A statistical test that rejects the null hypothesis if there is no significance in either direction of the sample distribution. Example: There is no significant difference in IQ between males and females What is a one-tailed test? A statistical test that rejects the null hypothesis in a specified direction. It is the difference in two independent groups with one attribute Example: Women will not score higher than males in IQ What are nonparametric tests? Statistics that are applied to populations that do not assume normal distribution. They are more powerful in detecting population differences What are parametric tests? Statistical tests that are applied to populations that assume a normal distribution What is a paired t-test? A parametric statistical test in which there is one dependent group with two values. Example: Student performance before and after drinking coffee What does the median test score? Deviations from the mean What is the Mann-Whitney U Test? It is the nonparametric version of the student t-test. It is used to test the null hypothesis that the means of two samples are equal. It is used when the sample size is too small or the populations do not assume normal distribution What is enhancement of contrast effect? A bias in which the viewing of something enhanced or mitigated is shown first to make the viewing of something else more enticing What is halo effect? The tendency to be influenced by other characteristics What is a student t-test? A statistical test of the null hypothesis that the means of two normally distributed populations are equal What is a paired student t-test? A statistical test that is performed when measurements are taken from the same subject because of some manipulation in the measurement What is linear regression? A PREDICTION about the values of one variable based on values of a second variable What is multiple regression? A PREDICTION about the values of a dependent variable on the basis of two or more independent variables What does Fisher's exact test do? It is an alternative to the chi-square test. It is used when data is divided into categories in two separte ways for SMALL sample sizes What is Pearson's r? Tells you the magnitude and direction of the correlation between two variables What is the difference between Pearson's r and Spearman's rho? No assumptions are made on the frequency distribution when using the rho What is a power analysis? A procedure for estimating sample size or the likelihood of making a type II error