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25 Cards in this Set
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What are in vivo measurements?

Measurements taken in or on a living organism


What are in vitro measurements?

Measurements performed outside an organisms body


What is sampling error?

The tendency for statistics to fluctuate from one sample to another


What is point estimation?

Using sample data to calculate a single value


What is null hypothesis?

The hypothesis that no significant difference exists between groups


What is confidence interval?

A range of values around the mean, usually 9599%


What is a type 1 error?

Rejecting a null hypothesis that is true. A "false positive"


What is the most frequently used alpha?

.05 and .01


What is a twotailed test?

A statistical test that rejects the null hypothesis if there is no significance in either direction of the sample distribution. Example: There is no significant difference in IQ between males and females


What is a onetailed test?

A statistical test that rejects the null hypothesis in a specified direction. It is the difference in two independent groups with one attribute Example: Women will not score higher than males in IQ


What are nonparametric tests?

Statistics that are applied to populations that do not assume normal distribution. They are more powerful in detecting population differences


What are parametric tests?

Statistical tests that are applied to populations that assume a normal distribution


What is a paired ttest?

A parametric statistical test in which there is one dependent group with two values.
Example: Student performance before and after drinking coffee 

What does the median test score?

Deviations from the mean


What is the MannWhitney U Test?

It is the nonparametric version of the student ttest. It is used to test the null hypothesis that the means of two samples are equal. It is used when the sample size is too small or the populations do not assume normal distribution


What is enhancement of contrast effect?

A bias in which the viewing of something enhanced or mitigated is shown first to make the viewing of something else more enticing


What is halo effect?

The tendency to be influenced by other characteristics


What is a student ttest?

A statistical test of the null hypothesis that the means of two normally distributed populations are equal


What is a paired student ttest?

A statistical test that is performed when measurements are taken from the same subject because of some manipulation in the measurement


What is linear regression?

A PREDICTION about the values of one variable based on values of a second variable


What is multiple regression?

A PREDICTION about the values of a dependent variable on the basis of two or more independent variables


What does Fisher's exact test do?

It is an alternative to the chisquare test. It is used when data is divided into categories in two separte ways for SMALL sample sizes


What is Pearson's r?

Tells you the magnitude and direction of the correlation between two variables


What is the difference between Pearson's r and Spearman's rho?

No assumptions are made on the frequency distribution when using the rho


What is a power analysis?

A procedure for estimating sample size or the likelihood of making a type II error
