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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Independent samples
When two ore more groups consist of completely different individuals
Dependent samples
Matched pairs - when the same individuals are tested more than one time
Parametric data
Data are normally distributed - greatly increased power of statistical analysis
Nonparametric data
Not normally distributed - categorical data (nominal or ordinal)
What are the qualifications for parametric data?
1. Measured variable must be normally distributed

2. Samples must be drawn at random

3. Variances in samples being compared must be equal

4. Data must be measured on interval or ratio scales (ie: continuous)
Concept of Robustness
If a sample is large enough, parametric tests can withstand slight variations from parametric assumptions.
2 groups only, 1 dependent and independent variable
Independent + Parametric (2 groups only)

Independent + Nonparametric (2 groups only)
Independent t-test

Mann-Whitney U (ranks)
Dependent + Parametric (2 groups only)

Dependent + Nonparamentric (2 groups only)
Paired t-test

Wilcoxon (ranks)
Why can't you run mulitple t-tests?
Increases chance for type I error (easier to find significant result)
What are ANOVAs?
Mean differences between more than 2 groups
Independent + Parametric (+2 groups)

Independent + Nonparametric (+2 groups)

Knuskai-Wallace (ranks)
Dependent + Parametric (+2 groups)

Dependent + Nonparametric (+2 groups)
Repeated Measures ANOVA

Friedman's (ranks)
Post-Hoc Tests definition
Only if an ANOVA is significant, can post-hoc tests be used to determine which specific groups are different using pairwise comparissons
Post-Hoc Tests examples
Tukey test, Newman-Keuis (NK) test, Bonferroni t-test (Dunn's), Scheffe's comparisons
Correlation coefficient (r)
Used to determine the strength of relationship - goodness of fit line

-1 = perfect negative relationship
1 = perfect positive rel
0=no relationship)
Used to describe a predictive relationship between a dependent (Y) variable and an independent (X) predictor variable
Regression line
Y = a +b(x)

b-slope of line, rate of change in Y with one unit of X
chi square - nonparametric statistic used to determine if a distribution of observed frequencies differs from expected frequencies of population