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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
validity
extent to which an instrument measures what it is intended to measure

(validity is continuum - no perfect research construct in all validity domains)
internal validity
integrity of the experimental design - effects are true for study participants

(given IV and DV, is there evidence that one causes the other)
external validity
appropriateness and extent by which results can be applied to non-study patients or populations

(can results be generalized outside of experiment)
maturation
(definition and how to control)
subjects may chance in the course of the experiment or between repeated measurements of the DV due to passage of time

multiple baseline measures
repeated testing
(definition and how to control)
prior measurement of the dependent variable may affect the results obtained from subsequent measurements

practice first, don't reveal results, randomize order
instrumentation error
(definition and how to control)
reliability of the instrument used to measure the DV variable or manipulate IV may change in the course of an experiment

calibration, multiple baseline measures
selection bias
subjects can have unique characteristics which can affect testing and measurement, some learned and some inherent

random selection
mortality/attrition
some subjects may drop out before completed

large sample size, intention to treat analysis for EBM
content validity
items that make up instrument adequately sample the universe of content that defines the variable being measured
construct validity
ability of an instrument to actually measure an abstract concept or construct
inadequate definition of constructs
(definition and example)
"inadequate preoperations explication of constructs" ($10 word for a $1 idea)

what is patient satisfaction?
experimenter expectancies
(definition and example)
can bias results of a study in countless ways, both consciously or unconsciously

communicate a desired study outcome, encourage a participant in one trial
interaction of different treatments
(definition and example)
that are not part of research design

drug-treatment interactions
interaction of testing and treatment
(definition and example)
measurement itself makes groups more sensitive or receptive to the treatment

gait assessment over a force plate may change gait
restricted generalizability
(definition and example)
"unintended consequences" or negative consequences of the side effects of a treatment

a drug reduces pain but promotes growth of facial hair (ok for men, not women)
criterion validity
ability of a test/instrument/measure to predict results obtained using a gold standard or criterion measure already known to be valid