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18 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Hypothesis
statement of the expected relationship between variables

best guess of cause and effect
Deductive Reasoning
acceptance of a general proposition, or premise, from which subsequent inferences can be drawn
Inductive Reasoning
invovles a type of reverse logic, developing generalizations from specific observations
Scientific Method (definition)
systematic, empirical, controlled, and critical examination of hypothetical propositions about the associations among natural phenomena
Scientific Method (steps)
1. Unanswered question
2. Propose hypothesis
3. Conduct experiment to test hypothesis
4. Measure, analyze, interpret results
5. Conclude - support or disprove hypothesis
6. Report findings
Basic (type of research)
fundamental, used to develop theories
Applied (type of research)
functional, used to dictate practice
Experimental (type of research)
researcher manipulates or controls select variables of interest and observes effects
Non-Experimental (type of research)
researcher does not manipulate or control any variables of interest
Experimental Research
structured evaluation of cause-and-effect relationships between variables
Quasi-Experimental
less control, no randomization and/or comparison of groups (e.g. education research)
Sequential Clinical Trials
continuous analysis of data as they become available (e.g. testing of new drugs)
Single-Case Studies
results based on data from one or very few patients (e.g. effect of new treatment/rare diseases)
Descriptive/Correlational
examination and interpretation of relationships (e.g. is caloric intake related to weight?)
Epidemiological
study of health determinant patterns in a population; to assess risk, prevalence of disease, disability
Historical/Retrospective
use of preexisting reports or records to determine relationships (e.g. do pre-admissions data relate to success in academic programs?)
Evaluation
determination of merit or worth using criteria against a set of standards (e.g. success of program in meeting goals)

can be formative (during project) or summative (after project)
Methodological
validation of measurement instruments or tools again accepted standards (e.g. new equipment/devices