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710 Cards in this Set

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What is research?
systematic inquiry
NAME
this is systematic inquiry
reserach
professionals routinly have (1)about their daily practices and which are answered best through research
questions
NAME
this cna very challenging, exhilarting, stimulating, and even frustrating
research
T or F
research is a simple activity
false
Implementing a research study in the (1)is more challenging than research conducted in the (2)
(1)home, community, outpatient clinic, or medical center (2)lba or setting controled by the investigator
What are (6)reasons to learn about the research process?
(1)systematically build knowledge and test treatment activity (2)impact health policy and service delivery (3)particpate in research activities (4)enhance understanding of the daily practice (5)become a critical consumer of research literature (6)has the potential to improve your practice and thus improving the quality of life the people you serve and the health of your community
What are (6)reasons to learn about the research process?
(1)systematically build knowledge and test treatment activity (2)impact health policy and service delivery (3)particpate in research activities (4)enhance understanding of the daily practice (5)become a critical consumer of research literature (6)has the potential to improve your practice and thus improving the quality of life the people you serve and the health of your community
What are (6)reasons to learn about the research process?
(1)systematically build knowledge and test treatment activity (2)impact health policy and service delivery (3)particpate in research activities (4)enhance understanding of the daily practice (5)become a critical consumer of research literature (6)has the potential to improve your practice and thus improving the quality of life the people you serve and the health of your community
Research yields a body of (1)
knowledge
What are (3)components that need to be included when defining research?
(1)research is more than one type of investigate strategy (2)research is composed of thinking processes and specfic actions that must be clearly delineated and articulated (3)it must be logical, understandable, confirmable, and useful to meet the criteria of research
Research is composed of (1)and (2)
thinking and action processes
NAME
this is more has more than one type of investigative strategy
research
NAME
this is composed of thinking and action processes that must be clearly delinated and articulated
reserach
NAME
this must be logical, understandble, confirmable, and useful to meet the criteria of this
research
What are some methods for research?(4)
(1)multiple strategies (2)experimental (3)prediction and hypothesis testing (4)nomothetic (5)naturalistic
Experimental is also called (1)
quantitative
(1)is also called the quantitative
experimental
naturalistic is also called (1)
qualitative
(1)is also called qualitative
naturalistic
What are (2)types of multiple systematic strategies used in research?
(1)experimental type design (2)naturalistic inquiry
What are (3)types of thought and action processes used in reserach?
(1)inductive (2)abductive (3)deductive
What are (4)criteria needed for research?
(1)logical (2)understandable (3)confirmable (4)useful
action processes refers to (1)
assumptions
(1)refers to assumptions
action processes
Describe the experimental type (6)
(1)reality is single (2)tends to be nomoethic (3)is deductive (4)a priori acceptance of truth exists (5)cause and effect (6)values and biases are held in check
Make a chart comparing and contrasting experimental and naturalistic
see powerpoint
Make a chart comparing and contrasting experimental and naturalistic
see powerpoint
Make a chart comparing and contrasting experimental (7) and naturalistic (8)
see powerpoint
Describe naturalistic thinking(5)
(1)multiple realities exist (2)can inductive or abductive (3)specfic to general (4)there is no prior acceptance of truth (5)values are inevitable and desirable
Describe naturalistic appraoch(6)
(1)multiple realities exist (2)can inductive or abductive (3)specfic to general (4)there is no prior acceptance of truth (5)values are inevitable and desirable (6)tends to be idiographic
Describe naturalistic appraoch(6)
(1)multiple realities exist (2)can inductive or abductive (3)specfic to general (4)there is no prior acceptance of truth (5)values are inevitable and desirable (6)tends to be idographic
What is deductive reasoning?
refers to moving from a general principle to understanding a specific case
NAME
this refers to moving from a general principle to understanding a specific case
Inductive reasoning
What is deductive reasoning?
this involves moving from a specific case to a broader generalization about the phenomenon under study
NAME
this involves moving from a specfic case to a broader generalization about the phenomenon under study
deductive reasoning
What is abductive reasoning?
involves the development of new theoretical propositions that account for a set of observations which cannot be accounted for or explained by a previsou proposition or theoretical framework
NAME
this reasoning involves involves the development of new theoretical propositions that account for a set of observations which cannot be accounted for or explained by a previsou proposition or theoretical framework
abductive reasoning
How are the experimental and naturalistic thinking similar?
they both describe, predict and explain phenomena
How are the experimental and naturalistic thinking similar?
they both describe, predict and explain phenomena
What are some sources of knowledge? (8)
(1)authority (2)hearsay (4)trial and error (5)history (5)belief (6)spiritual understanding (7)intuition (8)logical reasoning
What are (4)characteristics of reserach?
(1)logical (2)understandable (3)confirmable (4)useful
WHat are some other ways of knowing?(8)
(1)authority (2)hearsay (4)trial and error (5)history (5)belief (6)spiritual understanding (7)intuition (8)logical reasoning
What is authority?
is being told by a respected or trusted source
NAME
this is being told by a respected or trusted source
authority
What is hearsay?
is 2nd hand info that is not verified
NAME
this is 2nd hand info thati s not verified
hearsay
What is belief?
knowing w/out verification
NAME
this is knowing w/out vertification
belief
What is intuition?
explanations of human experience based on previous unique and personal organization of one's own experience
NAME
these are explanations of human experience based on previous unique and personal oganization of one's own experience
intuition
What is spiritual understanding?
knowing through diviine belief
NAME
this is knowing through divine belief
spiritual understanding
What do we mean by confirmable?
it means the reserach can clearly understand the strategies used and arrive at similar outcomes if it is repeated
What are the (10)essentials of research?
(1)id the philopsophical foundation (2)frame a research probem (3)determine the suporting knowledge (4)id theory base (5)develop a specfic question or query (6)select a design strategy (7)set study boundaries (8)obtain info (9)analyze info and draw conclusions (10)share and use research knowledge
Experimental type has (1)approach
linear
(1)has a linear approach
experimental type
NAME
this type of research is diverse and complex
naturalistic
the naturalistic is (1)and (2)
diverse and complex
What is a philosophical foundation?
is how a person, learns about an indivudal behevaior, health or other phenomena
NAME
this is how a person learn about an indivudal behavior, health or other phenomena
philosophical foundation
What is reserach problem?
is an experssion of the dilemma that needs investigation
NAME
this is an expression of the dilemma that needs investigation
research problem
What is supporting knowledge?
is a critcal review of the existing scientific literature
NAME
this is a critical review of the existing scientific literature
supporting knowledge
What is a theory?
is an abstract generalization that presents a systematic explanation about how phenomnea are inter-related
NAME
this is an abstract generalization that presents a systematic explanation about phenomena are inter-related
theory
What is research question? (3)
(1)specfic setof questions (2)broad direction of the reserach inquiry (3)specfic questions transpire during the process of learning about a phenomenon
NAME
this is a specfic set of questions, broad direction of the reserach inquiry, and specific questions transpire during the process of learning about a phenomenon
research question
What kind of research questions are there? (5)
(1)identification (2)descriptive (3)explorative (4)explanatory (5)predication and control
NAME
some types of these are identification, descriptive, explorative, explanatory, and predication and control
research questions
What is a descriptive question?
observes, counts, describes, and classifies
NAME
this type of question observes, counts, describes, and classifies
descriptive question
What is a explorative question?
investigates the full nature of the phenomenon
NAME
this is type of question investigates the full nature of the phenomeon
explorative question
What is a explanatory question?
often linked to theory and understanding the cuases of phenomenon
NAME
this type of question often linked to theory and understanding of the cuases of phenomenon
explanatory question
What is research desgin?
is the overall plan for answering the reserach question
NAME
this is the overall plan for answering the reserach question
research design
What is the experimental type research design?
strategies are clearly id prior to the data collection
NAME
this strategies are clearly id prior to the data collection
the experimental type research design
What is the naturalisic tpye research design?
are elements of the design envolve over the course of the study
NAME
these are the elements of the design envolve over the course of the study
naturalistic desing
NAME TYPE OF RESEARCH
What is the decision making process of AIDS patients seeking treatmetn
naturalistic
NAME TYPE OF RESEARCH
what effect does room temperature have on colonization rate of bacteria in urinary catheters?
experimental
NAME TYPE OF RESEARCH
what are the sources of stress amoung nursing home residents?
naturalistic
NAME TYPE OF RESEARCH
does therapeutic touch affect the vital signs of hospitlized patients?
experimental
NAME TYPE OF RESEARCH
what are the effects of prenatal instrucation on the labor and delivery outcomes of pregant women?
experimetnal
NAME TYPE OF RESEARCH
what are the health care needs of the homeless, and what are the barriers they face in having those needs met?
naturalistic
Describe what makes up study boundaries? (6)
(1)the limit the scope of the study (2)makes the study feasible (3)number of participants (4)length of the study (5)conceptual dimensions (6)type and number of questions
NAME
this limits the scope of the study, makes the study feasible, number of participants, length of the study, conceptual dimensions,and type and number of questions
study boundaries
How do you obtain info? (3)
(1)questionnaires (2)observations (3)interviews
How do you analysis the data for a experimental type reserach?
the data is classifed according to the level of reserach
How do you anaylsis the data for a naturalistic inquiry?
as ongoing process that informs data collection and to interpret the info acquired
What are some ethical considerations that need to be made? (3)
(1)human subjects (2)investigator conduct (3)ethics of the question and design procedures
What are (2)things that are part of philosophical foundation?
(1)ontology (2)epistemology
What is ontology?
is view or definition of reality
NAME
this is a view or definiation of reality
ontology
What is the epistemology?
is the nature of knowledge and how we come to know it
NAME
this is the nature of knowledge and how we come to know it
epistemology
What is the philosphical foundation of experimental reserach?
(1)epistemology of logical positivism (2)deductive process (3)hypothesis testing (4)bias eliminated through objective inquiry and analysis
NAME
this is epistemology of logical postivism, deductive process, hypothesis testing, bias eliminated through objective inquiry and anaylsis
experiemtnal reserach
What are the philosophical foundation of naturalistic inquiry?(6)
(1)holstic (2)the outside world and an individuals ideas are interrelated (3)knowledge based on perception (4)based on reductionism (5)reality is determined by an individuals lenses or baises (6)those who have the experience are most knolwdewable
NAME
this philosophical foundation is based :(1)holstic (2)the outside world and an indivudals ideas are interrelated (3)knowledge based on preception (4)based on reductionism (5)reality is determined by an individuals lenses or baises (6)those who have the experience are most knolwdewable
naturalistic reserach
What is the holistic approach?
means that there are multiple philosophical traditions
NAME
this means that there are multiple philosophical traditions
holistic approach
What is reductionism?
is that the human experience cannot be understood by separating the parts
NAME
this is the idea that human expereince cannot be understood by separating the parts
reductionism
What is integrated research?(4)
(1)multimethod reserach (2)philosophical paradigm of pregmatism (3)generates more in depth knowledge (4)puropseful and logical development combines elements of the thinking action process from both tradiations
NAME
this involves these things:
(1)multimethod reserach (2)philosophical paradigm of pregmatism (3)generates more in depth knowledge (4)puropseful and logical development combines elements of the thinking action process from both tradiations
integrated reserach
How do you select a research tradition and design strategy?(3)
think about (1)what you want to accomplish or reserach purpose (2)preferred way of knowing (3)exisiting knowledge in area of interest
T or F
Positivist assumes that reality exists and that it can be objectively studied and known
F
T or F
Positivist assumes subjectivity is considered inevitable and desirable in inquiry
T
T or F
Naturalist relies primarily on the collection and analysis of quantitative information F
F
T or F
Positivist inquires focus on discrete, specific concepts while attempting to control other aspects of a phenomenon
T
What paradigm is sometimes referred to as phenomenologic?
Logical positivism
Because scientific method is not concerned with isolated phenomena. What is a key characteristic of the scientific method?
Generalization
What is the setting of naturalistic inquiry?
the field
The process of developing generalizations from specific observations is referred to as (1)
inductive reasoning
What is the type of research that involves the systematic collection and analysis of controlled, numerical information
Experimental research
What type of research involves the systematic collection and analysis of subjective, narrative materials
Naturalistic type research
What is the most ingrained source of knowledge and difficult to challenge
tradition
What is the purpose of the design of an experimental type research?(2)
(1)restrict or control extraneous infleunces (2)provides a degree of certainty that observations are objective
NAME TYPE OF RESEARCH
the purpose of design of this research is to restrict or control extraneous infleunces and provides a degree of certainty that observations are objective
experimental type
How do you chose the design in experimental type reserach?(3)
based on the (1)literature review (2)level of theory development (3)research question
Describe the sequence of experimental research?
(1)problem statement (2)theory (3)research question (4)DESIGN (5)data collection (6)data analysis (7)reporting
What is the indepedent variable?
is the intervention or treatment
NAME
this is the intervention or treatment
independent variable
What is the dependent variable?
is the response or outcome
NAME
this is the response or outcome
dependent variable
What is the differ btwn the independent and dependent variable? (2)
(1)independent variable= is the intervention or treatment (2)dependent variable= response or outcome
What is the intervening variable?
are either confounding or extraneous variables
NAME
these include either confounding or extraneous variables
intervening variable
What is a concept?
symbollicaly represents observation and experience
NAME
this symbolically represents observation and expereince
concept
What is the construct?
represetns a model of relationships among two or more concepts
NAME
represents a model of relationships among two or more concepts
construct
What is the differ btwn the concept and construct? (2)
(1)concept=symbolically represents observation and experience (2)construct= represents a model of relationships among two or more concepts
What is a conceptual definition?
concept expressed in words
NAME
this is a concept expressed in words
conceptual definition
What is a operational definition?
how the concept will be measured
What is the differ btwn conceptual and operational def?
(1)conceptual def=concept expressed in words (2)operational def=is how the concept is measured
NAME
this is how the concept is measured
opertaional def
What is the variable?
operational def of a concept assigned numerical variable
NAME
this is an operational def of a concept assigned numerical variable
variable
NAME
this is the presumed cause of the dependent variable
independent variable
What is the intervening variable?
is the phenomenon that has an effect on the study of the variable?
NAME
this is the phenomenon that has an effect on the study of the variable
intervening variable
NAME
this is the phenomenon that is affected by the indepedent variable or is the presumed effect or outcome
dependent variable
the dependent variable is the phenomenon that is affected by the (1)or is the presumed (2)or (3)
(1)independent variable (2)effect (3)outcome
What is a hypothesis?
an educated guess
NAME
this is a testable statment taht indicates what the reseracher expects to find
hypothesis
hypothesis is a testable statement that indicates what the (1)
researcher expects to find
What are the bias in the plan design? (3)
(1)intervening variable (2)instrumentation (3)sampling
NAME
some of these in the plan design include intervening variable, instrumentation, and sampling
bias
What are the plan of the design?(3)
(1)bias (2)manipulation (3)control=random group assignment and control group
What are some types of validity? (3)
(1)internal validity (2)external validity (3)reliability
NAME
some types of this include=intenral validity, external vaility, and reliability
validity
What is internal validity?
are threats to internal validity
NAME
these are threats to intenral validity
internal validity
What is external validity?
are threats to external vailidty
NAME
these are threats to external validity
external validity
What are (7)threats to internal validity? (7)
(1)history (2)testing (3)instrumentation (4)maturation (4)regression (5)mortality (7)interactive effects
NAME
some of these include history, testing, instrumentation, maturation, regression, mortality, and interactive effects
threats to internal validity
What are some threats to external validity? (2)
reactivity and realism
NAME
some of these include reactivity and realism
external validity
What is how is reactivity a threat?
is the extent to which the subjects are responding to the condition of being part of the study
How is realism a threat to external validity?
the extent to which the experimental conditions stimulate the actual life situations to which the population is exposed
What is the purpose of a naturalistic design's reserach?
to describe, understand, or interpret daily life experiences
NAME
the purpose of this reserach is to describe, understand or interpret daily life experiences
naturalistic design
What is the context of naturalistic design?
the invesitagtor travels to the setting where the human phenomena occurs
NAME
the contex of this reserach is the invesitagotor travels to the setting where the human phenomena occurs
naturalistic design
What is the pluralistic perspective of reality in a naturalistic design?
means the same info may have different meaning or pluratisc interpretations by different indivudals
NAME TYPE OF RESEARCH
the pluralistic perspective of realitiy for this reserach is that the same info may have different meaning or plurastic interpretations by different indivudals
naturalistic design
What is transferability?
is not generalizable but to generate explanations, theories, and principles
NAME
this is not generalizable but to generate explanations, theories and principles
transferability
Describe naturalistic design
(1)is a pluralistic perspective of reality (2)transferability (3)flexibility (4)concern w lanaguage (5)emic/etic perspective (6)is an interactive and analytical process
NAME
this has the following:(1)is a pluralistic perspective of reality (2)transferability (3)flexibility (4)concern w lanaguage (5)emic/etic perspective (6)is an interactive and analytical process
naturalisic design
How is the naturalistic reserach flexible?
by their is no blueprint
What is the emic perspective?
is the inforamants way of interpreting an experience
NAME
this is the inforaments way of interpreting an experience
emic perspective
What is the eitic perspective?
is the perspective of those that are external to a group
NAME
this is the perspective of those that are external to a group
eitic perspective
What is the differ tbwnt eitic and emic perspective?
(1)emic=is the informants way of interpreting an experience (2)etitic=perspective of those that are external to a group
What are some true experimental designs?(3)
(1)random selection (2)control group (3)intervention (4)randomization (5)manipulation
NAME
these include random selection, control group, intervention, and manipulation
true experimental designs
What is the control group?
is the group that has no exposure to the experiment
NAME
this is the group that has no exposure to the experiment
control group
What is an intervention?
is the manipulation of the indepdent variable
NAME
this is the manipulation of the independent variable
intervention
What are some types true experimental design? (4)
(1)posttest only designs (2)solomon four group designs (3)factorial designs (4)counterbalance designs
NAME
these include posttest only designs, solomon four group designs, factorial designs, and counterbalance designs
true experimental designs
What is solomon 4 group designs?
combines the pretest-postest w postest only design
NAME
this combines the pretest-postest w postest only design
solomon 4 group design
What are some benefits of the solomon 4 group designs?
ability to detect interaction
NAME
some benefits of this is its ability to detect interaction
solomon 4 group designs
What is a factorial design?
simultaneous manipulation of 2 or more variables
NAME
this is the stimultaneous manipulation of 2 or more variables
factoral design
What is the counter balance design?
is more than 1 intervention in which the intervention is manipulated
NAME
this is more than 1 intervention in which the intervention is manipulated
counter balance design
Describe a quasi-experimental type research
random assignment is absent and has control group and manipulation
NAME
this type of design does not have a random assignment and has control group and manipulation
quasi-experimental type reserach
What are post-test only designs?
are random assignment of individuals to two groups w Collection of data after the intervention.
NAME
these are random assignments of individuals to two groups w collection of data after the intervention
post-test only designs
What is non-equivalant control group?
is the pretest and postest comparision group w.out randominzation
NAME
this is the pretest and postest comparision group w out randomization
non-equivalant control
What are interrupted time series?
is a repeated measurement of the dependent variable before the intro of the independent variable w no control or comparison group,
NAME
this is a repeated measurement of the dependent variable before the intro of the independent variable w no control group or comparison group
interrupted time series
What is an advantage if the nonequivalent control group?
control for threat of maturation and time related changes
NAME
an advantage of this is that the control for threat of maturation and time related changes
nonequivalent control group
What are some things that the researcher should think of in a Quasi-experimental design?
the researcher should be cautious about infering causal relationships in light of limitations
NAME
for this type of design, the reseracher should be cautious about infering causal relationships in light of limitations
Quasi-experimental design
What are some types of quasi-experimental design? (2)
(1)nonequivalent control group (2)interrupted time series
NAME
there are two types of these: nonequivalent control group and interrupted time series
quasi=experimental design
What is pre-experimental ?
i two of 3 criteria for the experimental are absent and outcomes does not support causal relationships
NAME
this is two or three critera for the experimental are absent and outcomes does not support causal relationships
pre-experimental
What are some types of pre-experimental? (3)
(1)one-shot case study (2)pretest postest design (3)static group
NAME
some of these include one-shot case study, pretest design, and static groupo
pre-experimental
What is advanatage of pre-experimental?
easier than quasi experimental
NAME
one advantages of this is that it is easier than quasi experimental
pre-experimental
What is a one shot case study?
is when a independent variable is introduced than the dependent variable is measured
NAME
this is when a independent variable is introduced than the dependent variable is measured
one shot case
What is pretest=postest design?
has several threats to internal validity
NAME
this has several threats to internal validity
pretest=postest design
What is a static group comparison?
is a comparison group added to the one shot case study
NAME
this is a comparison group added to the one shot case study
static group comparison
What is nonexperimental?
is the stastical manipulation of data and post-hoc manipulation through anaylsis
NAME
this is the stastical manipulation of data and post-hoc manipulation through anaylsis
non-experimental
What is non-experimental useful for?
testing a concept that naturally occurs
NAME
this useful for testing a concept that naturally occurs
non-experimental
What are some types of non-experimental? (3)
(1)surveys (2)passive observations (3)ex post facto designs
NAME
some types of these include surveys, passive observations, and ex post facto designs
non-experimental
What are surveys?
Are used to measure the prevalence of variables w in a population
What is ex post facto design?
The purpose is to study relationships among variables
NAME
The purpose is to study relationships among variables
Ex post facto
NAME
These can be used to this: sources of research problems, clinical experience, literature in the discipline, social issues, theories, and ideas from external sources
Passive observation
T or F
Correlation = causation
false
What is an advantage of ex post facto design?
It examines and quantifies naturally occurring phenomena
NAME
These can be used to this: sources of research problems, clinical experience, literature in the discipline, social issues, theories, and ideas from external sources
id topic
Who said
“Well began is half done”
Id a topic
Aristotle
Aristotle said (1)
‘well began is half done
What is the research problem?
Is the prexiling or troubling condition
NAME
This is the perplexing or troubling question
research problem
What is the research question?
Is the statement of a specific question or query the researcher wants to answer
NAME
This is the statement of a specific question or query the researcher wants to answer
reserach question
NAME
This is a prediction of the answers to the research questions
hypothesis
What is the statement of purpose?
Is a summary of the overall study goal in which key concepts and variables are id
NAME
This is a summary of the overall study goal in which key concepts and variables are id
Statement of purpose
What are (2)types of research problems?
(1)experimental (2)naturalistic
NAME
This has two types: experimental an naturalistic
research problems
Choice is driven by the (1)of the research
purpose
What is the purpose of the literature review? (3)
Id of a research problem (2)orientation to what is known and not known about a subject (3)determine the gaps in the literature
NAME
The purpose of this is to id a research problem, orientation to what is known and not known about a subject, and determine the gaps in the literature
literature review
When doing a literature review, what kind of literature should you concentrate on? (2)
(1)scientific literature (2)blind or peer-reviewed research journals
When doing a literature review, what should you look for? (3)
1)gaps in the knowledge the base (2)how was the current knowledge developed (3)conceptual framework used to inform the problem
What are some databases you can use to local relevant literature? (5)
(1)electronic databases (2)CINAHL (3)health literature (4)MEDLINE (5)PysINFO
What does CINAHL stand for?
Cummulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature
What does MEDLINE stand for?
Medical literature On-Line
MEDLINE is also called (1)
PUBMED
(1)is also called PUBMED
MEDLINE
What does PysINFO stand for?
Psychology info
Which source is the better source,

Primary vs secondary
primary
What helps to determine the boundaries of research?
Who, what, where how,
How do you determine whether literature is relevant to your problem or topic? (3)
(1)use theoretical framework (2)make sure specific variables and measures must be supported from existing literature (3)determine design based on the structure and content of existing theory related to problem area
What are the components of most research reports? (18)
(1)title (2)abstract (3)intro (4)theory (5)purpose (6)goal or purpose of the research (7)literature review (8)method and instruments and procedures (9)results or findings (10)discussion (11)references (12)theortical base or rationale for the study (13)problem, research question, or hypothesis (14)population and sample (15)methodology (16) manner in which the data is collected and analyzed (17)limitations (18) results and conclusions
T or F
The intro may or may not include in that rationale
T
What is rationale?
A discussion of relevant theory
NAME
This is a discussion of relevant theory
rationale
When doing a literature review and you have read the conclusions, you should (1)
Go back and read the problem statement again
What should the conclusion in literature be like?
Be logical following from the theoretical base, the problem statement, and both should complement each other
What are some guidelines for critiquing research or doing a literature review? (6)
(1)how through is the exposure of the literature review (2)are the materials appropriate and up to date (3)How organized is the review (4)does the review full-fill an intended purpose (5)does the review finish w an outline of the state of the art knowledge of the topic? (6)is the language appropriate and does the reviewer paraphrase
What is theory used for?
To guide decisions in health and human service professions
NAME
This is used to guide decisions in health and human service professions
theory
NAME
This is essential to conduct research
Theoretical framework
A theory helps a researcher see the (1)
Forest instead of a single tree
NAME
This consists of a constructs and propositions that form a logically interrelated deductive system-providing a means of logically arriving at new statements from the original propositions
theory
Draw the health belief model
see powerpoint notes
Research question is used for (1)research
Experimental
1)is used for experimental research instead of queries
reserach question
Queries are used for (1)instead of research questions
naturlistic reserach
(1)are used for naturalistic research instead of research questions
Naturalistic
What is the purpose of research questions in experimental research and queries in naturalistic research?
(1)they are an initial formal entry into the study (2)guides all subsequent steps in the research process
NAME (2)
These are an initial formal entry into the study and guides all subsequent steps in the research process
reserach question and queries
What should the research question in experimental type research be like?
(1)the question should be concise or narrow
How many levels of research are there?
3
There are (1)levels of research questions
3
Describe level 1 of a research question does
seeks to describe the phenomena that has not been studied
NAME
This seeks to describe the phenomena, describes a topic that has not been studies, and addresses one question in one population
Level 1 research question
What are some level 1 questions?
What are/what is
NAME
This level of research questions include what are/what is
level 1
Describe level 2 research questions
Builds on level 1 questions
NAME
This level of research question builds on level 1 questions
level 2
NAME
This level of research question measures the relationship btwn variables
level 2
NAME
This level of research question measures the relationship btwn variables
What are some level 2 questions?
What is the relationship btwn the variables in the question
NAME
This level’s research question is what is the relationship btwn the variables in the question?
level 2
What are some designs for level 1 research questions?(5)
(1)survey (2) exploratory (3)descriptive (4)case study (5)needs assessment
NAME
Some designs for this level of research questions include survey, exploratory, descriptive, case study, and needs assessments
level 1
What are some designs for level 2 research questions? (4)
Survey (2)correlational (3)passive observation (4)ex post facto
NAME
Some designs for this level of research question include survey, correlational, passive observation, and ex post facto
level 2
Describe level 3 research questions (3
Includes a predictor/causal variable, a population, and a predicted direction (2)directional /non-directional hypothesis (3)tests knowledge of theory
NAME
This level of research question includes a predictor/causal variable, a population and predicted direction, directional/non-directional hypothesis, and tests a knowledge of theory
level 3
What are some questions for level 3 of the research question?
Why
NAME
This level of research asks why
level 3
NAME
Some designs for this level of research questions include experimental and quasi-experimental
level 3
Describe the research queries in the naturalistic inquiry (4)
(1)has various philosophical perspectives (2)development of a broad problem of interest (3)identifies the phenomenon of interest, the location and population of the study (4)specific questions evolve in the field
What are some types of naturalistic queries? (3)
(1)classic ethnography (2)phenomenology (3)grounded theory
NAME
Some types of this include classic ethnography, phenomenology, and grounded theory
Naturalistic queries
What is classic ethnography?
In this type of query, the researcher learns the roles and describe the cultural patterns of groups
NAME
In this type of query, the researcher learns the roles and describes the cultural patterns of groups
Classic ethnography
What is phenomenology?
Is the meaning of the human experience as lived by humans
NAME
This is the meaning of human experience as lived by humans
Phenomenology
What does phenomenology focus on?
The experience from the perspective of indivudals
NAME
This focuses on the experiences from the perspective of individuals
phemenology
What is grounded theory?
Is used to generate or modify theory (2)queries relate to the structures of the findings
NAME
This is used to generate or modify theory and queries relate to the structures of the findings
grounded theory
Describe integrating research approaches?
(1)combines different research traditions (2)is knowledge driven (3)chooses from the best method to answer the question (4)can be complimentary (5)may enhance a study’s validity (6)may facilitate the interpretation of the findings
Id (5)common sources of ideas for research problems
1)journals (2)experiences (3)books (4)clincals (5)interviews
The statement of the specific query is refered to as (1)
reserach question
Id two hypothesis and give an example of each (2)
null and directional
List (2)electronic databases that can be used to find info?
medline and CINAHL
What is a primary source?
DIRECT INFO
How is theory used in research?
Is used as a guide to help you
What is epistemology?
is a prefered way of knowing
NAME
This is the preferred way of knowing
Epistemology
What are (6)six guiding research questions you can use in framing a question
(1)What about this topic of interest to me? (2)What about this topic is relevant to my practice? (3)What about this topic is unresolved in the literature (4)What is my preferred way of knowing ? (5)What societal or professional purpose does knowing about this topic serve? (6)What resources do I have to investigate for this topic?
What are reasons to review the literature? (6)
(1)determine previous research on topic of interest (2)determine level of theory and knowledge development (3)determine relevance of current knowledge base to problem area (4)provide rationale for selection of research strategy
What are (6) steps to conducting a literature review?
(1)determine when to conduct a search (2)delimit what is searched (3)acesss databases for periodicals, books, and documents (4)organize the literature (5)critcally eveulate the info (6)write the literature review
What are (4)reasons to review literature?
(1)determine previous research on topic of research (2)determine the level of theory and knowledge development (3)determine relevance of current knowledge base to problem area (4)provide rationale for selection of research strategy
STOOPED HERE
STOOPED HERE
What are (4)levels of measurement?
(1)nominal (2)ordinal (3)interval (4)ratio
NAME
these are 4 of these nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio
levels of measurement
What is the nominal level of measurement?
used to categorize characteristics, such as gender, blood type, and race
NAME
this is used to categorize characteristics such as gender, blood type, and race
nominal level of measurement
What is ordinal level of measuremnt?
ranks objects based on their specfic characeterstic such as heavist to lightest
NAME
this ranks objects based on their specic characteristics such as heavist to lighest
ordinal level of measurement
What is the interval level of measurement?
specfifies the ranking of objects on a characteristic and the distance btwn the those objects such as a SAT score
NAME
this specifies the ranking of objects on a characteristic and the distance btwn the those objects such as a SAT score
interval level of measurement
What is the ratio level of measurement? (2)
is the meaning of zero (2)provides the absolute characteristic such as temperature, weight, and height
NAME
this is the meaning of zero and provides the absolute characteristic such as temperature, weight, and height
ratio level of measurement
What is a statistical anaylses?
is a organized numerical information
NAME
this is a organized numerical information
statistical anaylyses
What is the statistical anaylses used for?
a method for systematically drawing conclusions
NAME
this is a method for systematically drawing conclusions
statistical analyses
What are (2) category for statistical analyses?
(1)descriptive (2)inferential
NAME
this can be categorized as descriptive or inferential
statistical analyses
What is the first level of statistical analyzes?
descriptive
NAME
this is the first level of the statistical analyses
descriptive
What is descriptive statistical analyses?
is a method of data reduction used to describe and synthesize data
NAME
this is a method of data reduction used to describe and synthesize data
descriptive statistical analyses
What is frequency distributions?
is toimpose order on numeric data
NAME
this is to impose order on numeric data
frequency distributions
What is descriptive statistical anylayses used for?
to id data entry error
NAME
this is used to id data entry error
descriptive statistical analyses
What is one advanatge of descriptive statistical analyses? (2)
makes it convenient to see at a glance highest and lowest scores(2)can easily id the most common score
NAME
this makes it convenient to see at the glance highest and lowest scores and can be easily id the most common score
descriptive statistical anyalses
What does N stand for?
total sample size
Give some examples of how data can be displayed graphically?
(1)pie (2)histogram (3)polygon
symmetrical distribution is also called (1)and (2)
normal or bell shaped curve
bell shaped curve is also called (1)and (2)
normal or symmetrical distribution
normal curve is also called (1)or (2)
bell shaped or symmetrical distribution
scores on the horizontal lines and vertical lines indicate (1)or (2)
frequencies or percentages
scores on the horizontal lines and vertical lines indicate (1)or (2)
frequencies or percentages
What is central tendency?
is a index of typicalness
NAME
this is a index of typicalness
central tendency
Central tendency is preferable for (1)
variables on a ratio or interval scale
NAME
this is preferable for variables on a ratio or interval scale
central tendency
What are (3)kinds ways used to find the central tendency?
(1)mean (2)mode (3)median
NAME
there are three kinds of these: mean, mode, and median
central tendency
What is the mode?
the number that occurs the most
NAME
this the number that occurs the mst
mode
NAME
this ids the most popular value
mode
What ids the most popular value?
mode
Find the mode for

51,51, 52, 53, 53, 53, 53, 54, 55, and 56
firgue it out
Find the median for
2, 2 , 3, 3, 4,5,6,7,8,9
firgue it out
NAME
this is insensitive to extreme scores
median
the median is insensitive to (1)
extreme scores
What is mean?
sum of all values divided by the number of particpants
NAME
this is the sum of all values divided by the number of all particpants
mean
What is the most important measure of central tendency?
mean
NAME
this is the most important measure of central tendency
mean
the mean is the most important measure of (1)
central tendency
the mean is used in (1)or (2)
interval or ratio level
What is varability?
is the spread of scores
NAME
this is the spread of scores
varability
What does variability do?
provides info about scoring patterns of a group
NAME
this provides info about scoring patterns of a group
varability
T or F
two sets of data w identical means can have different variability scores
true
What are the most important indexes of variability? (2)
(1)range (2)standard deviation
NAME
these are the most important indexes of varaibility
range and standard deviation
What is the range?
is the highest-lowest
NAME
this is the highest-the lowest
range
What is disadvantages of range?(3)
(1)unstable from sample to sample drawn from the sample population (2)ignores outliers
NAME
some disadvantages of this include unstable from sample to sample drawn, and ignores outliers
range
outliers are also called (1)
extreme score
(1)are also called extreme scores
outliers
NAME
this the most variability index
standard deviation
NAME
this calculated on every value in a distribution
standard deviation
NAME
this ids the extent to which scores in distrubtion differ from on another
standard deviation
What is percentages for a normal curve?
68...95 and 99.7
the mean, mode, and standard deviation is used to describe (1)
one variable
What is bivariate statistics?
Describes the relationships btwn two variables
NAME
This type of stats describes the relationships btwn two variables
Bivariate statistics
What is the contingency table?
Is a 2D frequency distribution
NAME
This is a 2D frequency distibrition
Contingency table
What is frequency?
Is how many times a data is presented
Contingency tables are usally used w (1) and (2)
Nominal or ordinal data
NAME
This is the most common method of describing the relationships btwn
Correlation
T or F
There are different types of correlation stastics pending sample size and level of measurement
Tru
What is the symbol for the correlation coefficant?
r
R is btwn (1)and (2)
-1 and 1
If the the slope is positive then what is the correlation cofficant?
1
Describe what a positive correlation means?
The variables increase or decrease in the same direction
If the slope is negative then what is the correlation cofficant?
-1
NAME
This means that the variables increase or decrease in the same direction
Positive correlation
Describe what a negative correlation is?
One variable increases as the other decreases
NAME
This means one variable increases as the other decreases
Negative correltation
What is the r zero?
When the variables are unrelated
If the variables are not related then the correation is (1)
Zero`
Negative correlation is sometimes called (1)
inverse correlation
(1)is also called inverse correlation
Negative correlation
The close r is to one the (1)
the stronger the relationship
Spearman’s rank-order correlation is sometimes referred to as (1)
Spearman rho
(1)is also called spearman rho
spearman's rank-order correlation
What is the inferential stastics?
determines the extent to which observations in a sample are representative of the population
NAME
this determines the extent to which observations in a sample are representative of the population
inferential stastics
What is the null hypothesis?
is a statemnt no difference btwn or among groups
NAME
this is a statement no difference btwn or among groups
null hypothesis
NAME
this provides criteria for deciding whether a hypothesis should be accepted as true or rejected as false, helps the reseracher to make objective decisions about study results, and helps to decide which results are likely to reflect chance differences and which are likely to reflect true hypothesized effect
hypothesis testing
What are some benifits of hypothesis testing?(3)
a hypothesis should be accepted as true or false (2)helps researchers to make objective decisions about study results (3)helps to decide which results are likely to reflect change differences and which are likely to reflect true hypothesized effects
What are some possible explanations for the outcome? (2)
(1)experimental treatment was successful (2)the difference was due to change
What is hypothesis testing?
a process of disproof or recjection
NAME
this is the process of disproof or rejection
hypothesis testing
The reseracher seeks to reject the null hypothesis through (1)
statistical test
What is type I error?
is when the researcher says the the null hypothesis is false when it is really true
NAME
this is when the reseacher says the null hypothesis is false when it is really true
type I error
What is type II error?
is when the reseracher says the null hypothesis is true but it is really false
NAME
this is when the reseracher says the null hypothesis is true but it is really false
type II error
What is the differ btwn type I and type II error?
(1)type I=is when the researcher says the null hypothesis says it is false but it is true (2)type II=is when the researcher says the null hypothesis is false but it is true
the smaller the number the (1)
more creditable the findings
What is signiface level?(2)
cut off point that indicates whether the samples being tested are from the same population or from a different population
NAME
this is the cutt off point that indicates whether the sample being tested are from the same population or from a differnet population
signifcance level
What are three levels of statistical analysis hierachial used in experimental research? (3)
(1)descriptive stats (2)inferntial stats (3)associational stats
What is descriptive stats?
are used to reduce large sets of observations into more compact and interpretable forms
NAME
this is used to reduce large sets of observations into more compact and interpretable forms
descriptive stats
What is inferential stats?
are used to draw conclusions about populations parameters
NAME
this is used to draw conclusions about populations parameters
inferential stats
What are associational stats?
is set of procedures designed to id relationships btwn multiple variables and to determine whether knowledge of one set of data allows the investigator to infer or predict the characeristics of another set of data
NAME
this is a set of procedures designed to id relationships btwn multiple variables and to determine whether knowledge of one set of data allows the investigator to infer or predict the characeristics of another set of data
associational stats
NAME
this provides techniques to reduce large sets of of data into smaller sets w/o sacrificing critical data
descriptive stats
What are (3)things you can conclude if the significance level is .05?
(1)there the reseacher is 95% sure he or she is correct (2)the is a risk that out of a 100 samples, a null hypothesis would be rejected 5 times (3)in 95 out of 100 cases a true null hypthesis would be correctly accepted
What are (3)things you can conclude if the signficance level is .08?
(1)the researcher is 92% he is correct (2)out of 100 samples, a true null hypothesis would be rejected 8 times (3)in 92 out of 100 cases, a true null hypothesis would be correctly accepted
What are (4)things you can conclude if the significance level is .01?
(1)the researcher is 99% he is correct (2)out of 100 samples, a true null hypothesis would be rejected 1 time (3)in 99 out of 100 cases, a true null hypothesis would be correctly accepted (4)w. 0.01 significance level the risk of making a type I error is lower
W a (1)significance level the risk of making a type I error decreases
.01
W a .01 significance level the risk of making a (1)decreases
type I error
When the hypothesis is nondirectional you use a (1)
two tailed test of significance
when the hypothesis is (1)you use a two tailed test of significance
nondirectional
When the hypothesis is directional use a (1)test of significance
one tailed test
When the hypothesis is (1)use a one tailed test of significance
directional
Compare and contrast one tailed and two tailed test? (2)
(1)one-tailed test-used on the hypothesis is non directional and is more stringent and has the least chance of type I error (2)two-tailed=is used on directional hypothesis and has more chance of a type I error
NAME
this test of significance is more stringent and has the least chance of type I error
two-tailed test
NAME
this test of sifnifiance is has more chance of type I error
one tailed test
What are some assumptions of parametric stats?(3)
(1)normal distribution (2)interval or ratio level measurements (3)homogeneous variables
NAME
this type of stats provides techniques to reduce large sets of of data into smaller sets w/o sacrificing critical data
descriptive stats
What are (3)things you can conclude if the significance level is .05?
(1)there the reseacher is 95% sure he or she is correct (2)the is a risk that out of a 100 samples, a null hypothesis would be rejected 5 times (3)in 95 out of 100 cases a true null hypthesis would be correctly accepted
What are (3)things you can conclude if the signficance level is .08?
(1)the researcher is 92% he is correct (2)out of 100 samples, a true null hypothesis would be rejected 8 times (3)in 92 out of 100 cases, a true null hypothesis would be correctly accepted
What are (4)things you can conclude if the significance level is .01?
(1)the researcher is 99% he is correct (2)out of 100 samples, a true null hypothesis would be rejected 1 time (3)in 99 out of 100 cases, a true null hypothesis would be correctly accepted (4)w. 0.01 significance level the risk of making a type I error is lower
W a (1)significance level the risk of making a type I error decreases
.01
W a .01 significance level the risk of making a (1)decreases
type I error
When the hypothesis is nondirectional you use a (1)
two tailed test of significance
when the hypothesis is (1)you use a two tailed test of significance
nondirectional
When the hypothesis is directional use a (1)test of significance
one tailed test
When the hypothesis is (1)use a one tailed test of significance
directional
Compare and contrast one tailed and two tailed test? (2)
(1)one-tailed test-used on the hypothesis is non directional and is more stringent and has the least chance of type I error (2)two-tailed=is used on directional hypothesis and has more chance of a type I error
NAME
this test of significance is more stringent and has the least chance of type I error
two-tailed test
NAME
this test of sifnifiance is has more chance of type I error
one tailed test
What are some assumptions of parametric stats?(3)
(1)normal distribution (2)interval or ratio level measurements (3)homogeneous variables
WHERE LEFT OUT FOR JESSICA
WHERE LEFT OFF W JESSICA
What is the differ btwn deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning?
Deductive-break something specfic into general broader parts
Inductive=goes from general to specific
Abductive=coming up with new theories that are not known
What is the differ btwn deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning?
Deductive-break something specfic into general broader parts
Inductive=goes from general to specific
Abductive=coming up with new theories that are not known
What is the differ btwn internal and external validity?
Internal validity – the ability to answer research question correctly
External validity=is the ability make generalizations about your findings.
What is the differ btwn internal and external validity?
Internal validity – the ability to answer research question correctly
External validity=is the ability make generalizations about your findings.
What is the differ btwn internal and external validity?
Internal validity – the ability to answer research question correctly
External validity=is the ability make generalizations about your findings.
What is the differ btwn deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning?
Deductive-break something specfic into general broader parts
Inductive=goes from general to specific
Abductive=coming up with new theories that are not know
Nominal measurements involve a simple (1)
label
Rank order questions are examples of (1)
classifcations
W ratio level measures there are real, rational (1)
ordinal
Unlike ordinal measures, interval measures involve (1)btwn points on the scale
absolute zero point
A descriptive index from a population is called (1)
parameter
An (1)is a systematic arrangement of aunatitative data from the lowest to highest values
frequncy disbtrubtion
A (1)is common way of presenting frequncy info in graphic form
frequency polygan
A distribution is described as (1)if the two halves are mirror images of each other
symmetrical
A distribution is described as (1)skewed if its longer tail points to the left
negative
A distrbution that has only one peak is (1)
unimodal
Many human charactersitcs, such as height, intelligenace, are distributed to approx an (1)
bell shaped curve
Measures that summarize the typical value in distrubtion are known as measures of (1)
central tendency
Measures of (1)are concerned w how spread out the data are
variability
When scores are not very spread out, the sample is said to be (1)w respect to the variable
homogenous
What is homogenous in stats mean?
is when the scores are not spread out (not that different)
NAME
this is when the scores are spread out
heterogenous
What is heterogenous in stats means?
that the scores are spread out
What is the differ btwn heterogenous and homogenous ?
(1)homogenous=is when the scores are not spread out (2)hetegenous=when the scores are spread out
Descriptive stats for 2 variables examinted simultaneous are called (1)
bivariate descriptive stats
What are bivariate descriptive stats?
are descriptive stats for 2 variables that are exaimted sumultenously
NAME
this is descriptive stats for 2 variables that are examined sumultenously
bivariate descriptive stats
Relationships are described as (1)if high values on one variable are associated w low values on the second
negatively correlated
the most commonly used correlation index is (1)
pearson r
Researchers using quantitive analysis apply (1)to draw conclusions about a pop based on info from a smaple
inforational stats
Sampling distrubtions of means have a (1)distrubtion
normal
the desired degree of risk making (1)error is established by the reseracher
type I
tests that involve the estimation of parameters are refered to as (1)
parametric stats
What are parametric stats?
are tests that involve the estimation of parameters
The most commonly used (1)are the .05 and .01 levels
significance levels
using alpha=.01 rather than alpha=.05 increases the risk of committing a (1) error
type II
In a (1)differences in means for two groups are tested while an (2)differences in means for three or more groups are tested
(1)t test (2)f test
(1)is also called the f test
ANOVA
(1)is also called the ANOVA
f test
the statistic computed in an analysis of variance is the (1)statistic
F
When both the independent and dependent variables are nominal measures, the test sttistic usually calculated in the (1)
chi-square test
the analysis that would be used to predict patient's postoperative fatigue levels on the basis of three preoperative characetrestics would be (1)
multiple regression
the square of (1)indicates the proportion of variance accounted for in a dependent variable by several indpendent variables
r
NAME THE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLE
does the assertiveness training improve the effectiveness of psychaiatric nurses?
independent=the effectivness of training
dependent=the nurses
NAME THE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLE
does the postural positioning of patients affect their respiratory functioning
indpendent=postral postioning
dependent=respiratory function
NAME THE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLE
is the psychological well being of patients affected by the amount of touch received from nursing staff?
(1)independent= touch (2)dependent= well being of the patient
NAME THE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLE
is the incidence of decutbius ulcers reduced by more frequent turning of patients?
independent=frequent turning of patients
dependent=ulcers
NAME THE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLE
are people who are abused as children more likely than others to abuse their own children?
independent= abused children (2)absused children of their own
NAME THE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLE
is tolerance for pain related to a patient's age and gender?
independent=age and gender
dependent= tolerance for pain
NAME THE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLE
is the number of prenatal vistis of pregnant women associated w labor and delivery outcomes?
independent= number of pregant women
dependent= labor and delivery outcomes
NAME THE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLE
are levels of depression higher among children who experience the death of sibling than among other children?
independent=children from both groups
dependent= the level of depression
NAME THE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLE
is compliance w a medical region higher among women than among men?
independent= gender
dependent= compliance w medical regimen
NAME THE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLE
is anxiety in surgical patients affected by structured preoperative teaching?
independent= teaching
dependent= anxiety
in quantitative studies, the people who are being studied are often refered to as (1)they may also be refered to as (2)in both qualitative and quantitative studies
(1)subjects (2)participants
the abstract qualities in which a researcher is interested are referred to by both qualititave ad quantitative researchers as (1)
concepts
A (1)a term used primarily an quantitative reserach, is a quality of a person, group, setting or situation that takes different value
indpendent
the variable that the researcher wants to be understand, explain, or predict is known as the (1)variable or the (2)variable
(1)dependent (2)outcome or predictor variable
a variable that is irrevlant in quantitative investigation and needs to be controlled is called an (1)variable
confounding
the pieces of info obtained in the course of a study are collectively known as the (1)
data
Quanitative researchers carefully specify how to measure concepts of interest, resulting in (1)
operational def
when the data are form of narrative description, the are (1)
natrualistic
While quantitative researchers are intrestied in studying relationships btwn variables, qualitative researchers examine (1)
pattern assocations
the higher the daily caloric intake, the greater the weight expresses the presumed (1)relationship
cause and effect
the process of developing generalizations from specfic observations is referred to as(1)
indeductive reasoning
the process of developing specfic predications from general principles is (1)
deductive reasoning
two important criteria for evulating the quaility of quantitative studies are (1)and (2)
validity and reliability
the qualitative reserach, the worth of the study can be evaluated through assessments of its (1)
creditability
When researchers use multiple referrents to draw conclusions, they are using (1)
integrated method
In thinking about how research findings can be used in other settings or contexts, quantitative researchers are concerned about (1)and qualitative researchers are concerned about (1)
(1)generalization (2)transferability
T or F
the naturalist paradigm asssumes that reality exists and that it can be objectively studied
true
T or F
the postivistic paradigm focuses are discrete, specific concepts while attempting to control others
true
T or F
Naturlist paradigm is not constrained by ethical issues
false
T or F
inquires in the naturalist paradigms give rise to emerging interpretations that are grounded in peoples experiences
true
T or F
the reserach problem, " What effects does room temperature have on the colonization rate of bacteria in urinary catheters? is best suited for qualitative research methods
false
T or F
the reserach problem is "what is the meaning of hope among stave IV cancer patients" is best suited for the qualitative reserach methods
true
T or F
the dependent variable is the presumed cause
fals
T or F
the dependent variable is the main outcome of interest in the study
true
T or F
the occurence of an event concurrently w the intro of an intervention that can affect the outcome of a study is called a history threat
true
T or F
in factorial design subjects are assigned at random to a combo of treatments
true
the dependent variable can also be called the (1)or (2)
outcome or criterion variable
(1)can also be called the outcome variable
dependent
(1)can also be called the outcome variable
dependent
the independent variable can also be called the (1)
predictor variable
(1)can also be called the predictor variable
independent
T or F
descriptive stats make up the first level of statsical anaylisis
true
T or F
the mean is the most important measure of central tendency
true
T or F
a quai-experimental design that involves repeated observations over time is referred to a time-series design
true
T or F
a primary objective of true experimental design is to enable the researcher to infer causal relationship
true
T or F
the manipulation that the researcher introduces is referred to as the dependent variable
false
T or F
correlation proves causation
false
T or F
a positive correlation indicates that as the numerical values of one variable increases or decrease, the values for the other variables also change in the same directions
true
T or F
spearman rho is calculated on interval level data
false
T or F
statistical inference is based on the process of generalizing from samples to populations from which the samples are derived
true
T or F
if a hypothesis is nondirectional, it usally assumses that extreme scores can occur at either end of the curve or in the tail
true
Draw a chart of the various types of desgins
see notes
Draw a chart of the various types of desgins
see notes
Draw a chart of the various types of desgins for exp research
see notes
Draw a chart of the various levels of reserach quetsions
see notes
Draw a chart of the various levels of reserach quetsions
see notes
Draw a chart of the various levels of reserach quetsions
see notes
Draw a chart of the various levels of reserach quetsions
see notes
Draw a chart of the various levels of reserach quetsions
see notes
STOPPED HERE
STOPPED HERE
Draw a chart of the differ designs for experimental and what they look like
see notes
Draw a chart of the differ designs for experimental and what they look like
see notes
Draw a chart of the differ designs for experimental and what they look like
see notes
Draw a chart of the differ designs for experimental and what they look like
see notes
What is ex post facto latin for?
after the fact
NAME
this latin for after the fact
ex post facto
What is ex post facto design?
are conducted on phenomans that have already occured and cannot be manilpulated
NAME
this type of experimental design is conducted on phenomona that have already occured and cannot be manilpulated
ex post facto design
What are (3)characteristics of a true-experimental design?
(1)randomization (2)control group (3)manipulation of X variable
What are (3)characteristics of a true-experimental design?
(1)randomization (2)control group (3)manipulation of X variable
What are (3)characteristics of a true-experimental design?
(1)randomization (2)control group (3)manipulation of X variable
What are (3)characteristics of a true-experimental design?
(1)randomization (2)control group (3)manipulation of X variable
What is the Quasi experimental design?
has only a control group and manipulation w NO randomization
NAME
these experimental reserach design does not have any randomization
Quasi experimental and possible pre-experimental (remember def is design lacking 2 or 3 of the criteria for a true experimental design)
Which experimental design has no randomization?
Quasi experimental and possibly pre-experimental
NAME
this has only a control group and manipulation w NO randomization
Quasi experimental design
What is the pre-experimental design?
has 2 or 3 of the criteria for a true experimentation design are absent
nAME
for this type of experimental design in which 2 or more of the criteria for true experimental design are absent
pre-experimental design
What is the non-experimental design?
used to test concepts that occur naturally
NAME
this experimental design is used to test concepts that occur naturally
non-experimental design
What is the differ btwn the different experimental designs? (4)
(1)True experimental=has 4 criteria randomization, control group, and manipulation of X variable (2)quasi-experimental=has only control group and manipulation NO randomization occurs (3)pre-experimental=2 or 3 of the criteria of a true experimental design are absent (4)non-experimental =used for testing concepts that occur naturally
What is the differ btwn the different experimental designs? (4)
(1)True experimental=has 4 criteria randomization, control group, and manipulation of X variable (2)quasi-experimental=has only control group and manipulation NO randomization occurs (3)pre-experimental=2 or 3 of the criteria of a true experimental design are absent (4)non-experimental =used for testing concepts that occur naturally
What is the differ btwn the different experimental designs? (4)
(1)True experimental=has 4 criteria randomization, control group, and manipulation of X variable (2)quasi-experimental=has only control group and manipulation NO randomization occurs (3)pre-experimental=2 or 3 of the criteria of a true experimental design are absent (4)non-experimental =used for testing concepts that occur naturally
What is the differ btwn the different experimental designs? (4)
(1)True experimental=has 4 criteria randomization, control group, and manipulation of X variable (2)quasi-experimental=has only control group and manipulation NO randomization occurs (3)pre-experimental=2 or 3 of the criteria of a true experimental design are absent (4)non-experimental =used for testing concepts that occur naturally
What are the (4)types of experimental designs?
(1)true-experimental design (2)quasi-experimental design (3)pre-experimental design (4)non-experimental design
NAME
these include (1)true-experimental design (2)quasi-experimental design (3)pre-experimental design (4)non-experimental design
types of experimental desings
What are the (4)types of true experimental designs?
(1)post test design (2)solomon 4 group (3)factorial design (4)conterbalance design
NAME
there are four types of this design: post test design, solomn 4 group, factorial design, and counterbalance design
true experimental design
What are (2)types of quasi experimetnal design?
(1)non-equivalent design (2)interrupted times series
NAME
there are two types of this design: non-equivalent design and interrupted times series
quasi experimental design
What are some different types of Pre-experimental designs? (3)
(1)one shot case study (2)pre test design (3)static group
NAME
some types of this experimental design include one shot case study, pre=test design, and static group design
pre-experimental design
What are some different types of non-experimental designs? (3)
(1)surveys (2)passive observations (3)ex post facto designs
NAME
some types of this experimental design include surveys, passive observations, and ex posto facto designs
non-experimental designs
NAME DESIGN
R X O or r X O
R O r O
post-test only
NAME DESIGN
Group 1 R O X O
Group 2 R O O
Group 3 R X O
Group 4 R O
solomon 4 group
Draw what the actual design for the post test only would look like
R X O or r X O
R O r O
Draw what the solomon 4 group design would actually look like
Group 1 R O X O
Group 2 R O O
Group 3 R X O
Group 4 R O
Draw what the counterbalance design would actually look like
R O X1 O X2 O
R O X2 O X1 O
Draw what the non-equivalent control group design would actually look like
O X O
O O
Draw what the one shot case study would actually look like?
X O
NAME DeSIGN
R O X1 O X2 O
R O X2 O X1 O
counterbalance design
NAME DESIGN
O X O
O O
non-equivalent design
NAME DESIGN
X O
one shot case study
What does interrupted times series design actually look like?
O1 O2 O3 X O4 O5 O6
NAME DESIGN
O1 O2 O3 X O4 O5 O6
interrupted times series design
What does the actually pre-test desing look like?
O X O
NAME DESIGN
O X O
pre-test design
What does the actual static group design look like?
X O
O
NAME DESIGN
X O
O
static group
WHat is nonparametric stats?
stats that uses formulas to test hypothesis when data variables violate one or more assumptions
NAME
this type of stats uses formulas to test hypothesis when data variables violate one or more assumptions
nonparametric stats
What is parametric stats?
stats that uses formulas to test hypothesis based on assumptions
NAME
this type of stats uses formulas to test hypothesis based on assumptions
parametric stats
What is the differ btwn nonparametric stats and parametric stats?
(1)nonparametric stats=uses formulas to test hypothesis when data violates one or more assumptions (2)parametric stats=uses formulas to test hypottheis based on assumptions
What is the differ btwn nonparametric stats and parametric stats?
(1)nonparametric stats=uses formulas to test hypothesis when data violates one or more assumptions (2)parametric stats=uses formulas to test hypottheis based on
What is the differ btwn nonparametric stats and parametric stats?
(1)nonparametric stats=uses formulas to test hypothesis when data violates one or more assumptions (2)parametric stats=uses formulas to test hypottheis based on
What is the differ btwn T test and F test? (2)
(1)t test compares the difference means for 2 groups
(2)f test= compares the difference in means for 3 or more groups
What is the differ btwn T test and F test? (2)
(1)t test test the difference in means of 2 groups (2)f test test s the difference in means for 3 or more groups
Chi sqaure test is also called (1)
X2 test
(1)is also called chi square test
chi square test
What is the differ btwn the X2 test and teh Mann Whitney U test?
(1)X2=elevates the group difference of groups of nominal data (2)Mann Whitney U-elevates the group difference of groups for ordinal data
What is the differ btwn the X2 test and teh Mann Whitney U test?
(1)X2=elevates the group difference of groups of nominal data (2)Mann Whitney U-elevates the group difference of groups for ordinal data
What is the differ btwn the X2 test and teh Mann Whitney U test?
(1)X2=elevates the group difference of groups of nominal data (2)Mann Whitney U-elevates the group difference of groups for ordinal data
NAME
this elevates the difference of groups for ordinal data
Mann Whiteny U
What is Mann Whitney U?
elevates the difference of ordinal data
What is the X2 test?
elevates the difference btwn groups for numerical data
Draw a chart of the different statistical analysis levels for experimental reserach
see notes
Draw a chart of the different statistical analysis levels for experimental reserach
see notes
Draw a chart of the different statistical analysis levels for experimental reserach
see notes
Draw a chart of the different statistical analysis levels for experimental reserach
see notes
What are the different levels of statsiatc analysis used in experimental reserach?(3)
(1)descriptive stats (2)inferential stats (3)associational stats
What are the different levels of statsiatc analysis used in experimental reserach?(3)
(1)descriptive stats (2)inferential stats (3)associational stats
NAME
during statsical anaylisis of this type of reserach these levels are used :(1)descriptive stats (2)inferential stats (3)associational stats
experimental type reserach
What is manipulation?
is the ability to w/hold the X variable
NAME
this is the ability to w/hold the X variable
manipulation
What are 3 assumptions of parametric stats?
(1)samples is derived from a pop w a normal curve (2)variance is homogeneous (3)data are measured at interval level
What are 3 assumptions of parametric stats?
(1)samples is derived from a pop w a normal curve (2)variance is homogeneous (3)data are measured at interval level
What are 3 assumptions of parametric stats?
(1)samples is derived from a pop w a normal curve (2)variance is homogeneous (3)data are measured at interval level
NAME
this type of stats makes three assumptions: they are (1)samples is derived from a pop w a normal curve (2)variance is homogeneous (3)data are measured at interval level
parametric stats
What are the different types of descriptive stats? (2)
univariate (2)bivariate
NAME
this stats has two types: univariarate and bivariate
descriptive stats
What are some types of inferential stats? (2)
nonparametric and nonmparametric stats
NAME
there are two types of this stats: parametric and nonparametric
inferential stats
What are some test used in parametric stats? (3)
(1)t test and f test
NAME
these tests are used in this type of stats: t and f test
parametric stats
NAME
the X2 and Mann Whiteny U test are used for this type of stats
nonparametric stats
What are some types of tests used in nonparametric stats?(2)
(1)X2 and Mann Whiteny Tests
What is the differ btwn descriptive, inferential, and assocatioanl stats?
(1)descrptive stats=reduces largest sets of data (2)inferential- is used to draw conclusions about population parameters (3)associational stats= is a set of procedures designed to id relationships btwn multiple variables and predications that are amde
What is the differ btwn descriptive, inferential, and assocatioanl stats?
(1)descrptive stats=reduces largest sets of data (2)inferential- is used to draw conclusions about population parameters (3)associational stats= is a set of procedures designed to id relationships btwn multiple variables and predications that are amde
What is the differ btwn descriptive, inferential, and assocatioanl stats?
(1)descrptive stats=reduces largest sets of data (2)inferential- is used to draw conclusions about population parameters (3)associational stats= is a set of procedures designed to id relationships btwn multiple variables and predications that are amde
What is descriptive stats?
stats used to reduce larges sets of data
NAME
these are stats that are used to reduce
descriptive stats
What are inferential stats?
are used to draw conclusions about pop parameters
NAME
these are used to draw conclusion about pop parameters
inferential stats
What are associational stats?
are sets of procedures desgined to id relationship btwn multiple variable and predictions that are made
NAME
these are sets of procedures desgined to id relationship btwn multiple variable and predictions that are made
assocational stats
Shorter quoations are used for words fewer than (1)
40
A page number in a citation is noted as (1)
p.
use (1)numercals whenever possible
arabic
Use (1)to express all numbers 10 and above
firgues
Use (1)to express numbers that immediately precede a unit of measurement
firgues
When do you use firgues?
to express numbers that are immediately precede a unit of measurement
T or F
consectuvie related tables should be numbered w suffic letters such as "Tables 5a, 5b, and 5c.
false
T or F
use the % when it is preceded by a numerical such as 22% of.." but use the word percentage when a number is not given
true
T or F
firgue legends should be printed as footnotes
false
T or F
Author's names are inverted in the reference list that is surname first
true
T or
W three or more authors, use an & btwn each author's name in the reference list
false
T or F
the year of publication is enclosed in the parenthese then followed by a colon in the reference list
true
T or F
do not underline the title or place quotations mark around it
true
T or F
capatilize only the first word of the title and the subtitle, if any and proper names in the reference list
true
T or F
use a comma after the article title to sepearate it from the name of the journal
true
T or F
use upper and lower case in journal titles, underline the title, and follow it w a comma
true
T or F
the vol number of journal should be underlined or italicized followed w in a comma
true
T or F
finish all references w a period
false
T or F
list the issues number of a journal in parenthese immediately following the number only if each issue begans w page 1
true
In the text, refer to the tables by (1)
by their numbers
(1)is used in text to abbreviate a citution after the full citation has already been provided one
et al.
Only use (1)ruling in tables
horizontal
Seriation to indicate steps that are separate paragraphs are typed as (1)
1.2.3.
Seriation w/in a paragraph is typed as (1)
(a)(b)(c)
Multiple author cirtation in text are joined a (1)
and
Multiple author citations in the reference list are joined w a (1)
&
Multiple authors in parentheses are joined w a (1)
&
Two or more works by different authors who are cited w/in the same parentheses are listed in what order?
alpha by name
What does X stand for?
independent varaible
What does O stand for?
dependent variable
What does R stand for?
random sample
(1)stands for the independent variable
X
(1)stands for the dependent variable
O