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710 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
What is research?

systematic inquiry


NAME
this is systematic inquiry 
reserach


professionals routinly have (1)about their daily practices and which are answered best through research

questions


NAME
this cna very challenging, exhilarting, stimulating, and even frustrating 
research


T or F
research is a simple activity 
false


Implementing a research study in the (1)is more challenging than research conducted in the (2)

(1)home, community, outpatient clinic, or medical center (2)lba or setting controled by the investigator


What are (6)reasons to learn about the research process?

(1)systematically build knowledge and test treatment activity (2)impact health policy and service delivery (3)particpate in research activities (4)enhance understanding of the daily practice (5)become a critical consumer of research literature (6)has the potential to improve your practice and thus improving the quality of life the people you serve and the health of your community


What are (6)reasons to learn about the research process?

(1)systematically build knowledge and test treatment activity (2)impact health policy and service delivery (3)particpate in research activities (4)enhance understanding of the daily practice (5)become a critical consumer of research literature (6)has the potential to improve your practice and thus improving the quality of life the people you serve and the health of your community


What are (6)reasons to learn about the research process?

(1)systematically build knowledge and test treatment activity (2)impact health policy and service delivery (3)particpate in research activities (4)enhance understanding of the daily practice (5)become a critical consumer of research literature (6)has the potential to improve your practice and thus improving the quality of life the people you serve and the health of your community


Research yields a body of (1)

knowledge


What are (3)components that need to be included when defining research?

(1)research is more than one type of investigate strategy (2)research is composed of thinking processes and specfic actions that must be clearly delineated and articulated (3)it must be logical, understandable, confirmable, and useful to meet the criteria of research


Research is composed of (1)and (2)

thinking and action processes


NAME
this is more has more than one type of investigative strategy 
research


NAME
this is composed of thinking and action processes that must be clearly delinated and articulated 
reserach


NAME
this must be logical, understandble, confirmable, and useful to meet the criteria of this 
research


What are some methods for research?(4)

(1)multiple strategies (2)experimental (3)prediction and hypothesis testing (4)nomothetic (5)naturalistic


Experimental is also called (1)

quantitative


(1)is also called the quantitative

experimental


naturalistic is also called (1)

qualitative


(1)is also called qualitative

naturalistic


What are (2)types of multiple systematic strategies used in research?

(1)experimental type design (2)naturalistic inquiry


What are (3)types of thought and action processes used in reserach?

(1)inductive (2)abductive (3)deductive


What are (4)criteria needed for research?

(1)logical (2)understandable (3)confirmable (4)useful


action processes refers to (1)

assumptions


(1)refers to assumptions

action processes


Describe the experimental type (6)

(1)reality is single (2)tends to be nomoethic (3)is deductive (4)a priori acceptance of truth exists (5)cause and effect (6)values and biases are held in check


Make a chart comparing and contrasting experimental and naturalistic

see powerpoint


Make a chart comparing and contrasting experimental and naturalistic

see powerpoint


Make a chart comparing and contrasting experimental (7) and naturalistic (8)

see powerpoint


Describe naturalistic thinking(5)

(1)multiple realities exist (2)can inductive or abductive (3)specfic to general (4)there is no prior acceptance of truth (5)values are inevitable and desirable


Describe naturalistic appraoch(6)

(1)multiple realities exist (2)can inductive or abductive (3)specfic to general (4)there is no prior acceptance of truth (5)values are inevitable and desirable (6)tends to be idiographic


Describe naturalistic appraoch(6)

(1)multiple realities exist (2)can inductive or abductive (3)specfic to general (4)there is no prior acceptance of truth (5)values are inevitable and desirable (6)tends to be idographic


What is deductive reasoning?

refers to moving from a general principle to understanding a specific case


NAME
this refers to moving from a general principle to understanding a specific case 
Inductive reasoning


What is deductive reasoning?

this involves moving from a specific case to a broader generalization about the phenomenon under study


NAME
this involves moving from a specfic case to a broader generalization about the phenomenon under study 
deductive reasoning


What is abductive reasoning?

involves the development of new theoretical propositions that account for a set of observations which cannot be accounted for or explained by a previsou proposition or theoretical framework


NAME
this reasoning involves involves the development of new theoretical propositions that account for a set of observations which cannot be accounted for or explained by a previsou proposition or theoretical framework 
abductive reasoning


How are the experimental and naturalistic thinking similar?

they both describe, predict and explain phenomena


How are the experimental and naturalistic thinking similar?

they both describe, predict and explain phenomena


What are some sources of knowledge? (8)

(1)authority (2)hearsay (4)trial and error (5)history (5)belief (6)spiritual understanding (7)intuition (8)logical reasoning


What are (4)characteristics of reserach?

(1)logical (2)understandable (3)confirmable (4)useful


WHat are some other ways of knowing?(8)

(1)authority (2)hearsay (4)trial and error (5)history (5)belief (6)spiritual understanding (7)intuition (8)logical reasoning


What is authority?

is being told by a respected or trusted source


NAME
this is being told by a respected or trusted source 
authority


What is hearsay?

is 2nd hand info that is not verified


NAME
this is 2nd hand info thati s not verified 
hearsay


What is belief?

knowing w/out verification


NAME
this is knowing w/out vertification 
belief


What is intuition?

explanations of human experience based on previous unique and personal organization of one's own experience


NAME
these are explanations of human experience based on previous unique and personal oganization of one's own experience 
intuition


What is spiritual understanding?

knowing through diviine belief


NAME
this is knowing through divine belief 
spiritual understanding


What do we mean by confirmable?

it means the reserach can clearly understand the strategies used and arrive at similar outcomes if it is repeated


What are the (10)essentials of research?

(1)id the philopsophical foundation (2)frame a research probem (3)determine the suporting knowledge (4)id theory base (5)develop a specfic question or query (6)select a design strategy (7)set study boundaries (8)obtain info (9)analyze info and draw conclusions (10)share and use research knowledge


Experimental type has (1)approach

linear


(1)has a linear approach

experimental type


NAME
this type of research is diverse and complex 
naturalistic


the naturalistic is (1)and (2)

diverse and complex


What is a philosophical foundation?

is how a person, learns about an indivudal behevaior, health or other phenomena


NAME
this is how a person learn about an indivudal behavior, health or other phenomena 
philosophical foundation


What is reserach problem?

is an experssion of the dilemma that needs investigation


NAME
this is an expression of the dilemma that needs investigation 
research problem


What is supporting knowledge?

is a critcal review of the existing scientific literature


NAME
this is a critical review of the existing scientific literature 
supporting knowledge


What is a theory?

is an abstract generalization that presents a systematic explanation about how phenomnea are interrelated


NAME
this is an abstract generalization that presents a systematic explanation about phenomena are interrelated 
theory


What is research question? (3)

(1)specfic setof questions (2)broad direction of the reserach inquiry (3)specfic questions transpire during the process of learning about a phenomenon


NAME
this is a specfic set of questions, broad direction of the reserach inquiry, and specific questions transpire during the process of learning about a phenomenon 
research question


What kind of research questions are there? (5)

(1)identification (2)descriptive (3)explorative (4)explanatory (5)predication and control


NAME
some types of these are identification, descriptive, explorative, explanatory, and predication and control 
research questions


What is a descriptive question?

observes, counts, describes, and classifies


NAME
this type of question observes, counts, describes, and classifies 
descriptive question


What is a explorative question?

investigates the full nature of the phenomenon


NAME
this is type of question investigates the full nature of the phenomeon 
explorative question


What is a explanatory question?

often linked to theory and understanding the cuases of phenomenon


NAME
this type of question often linked to theory and understanding of the cuases of phenomenon 
explanatory question


What is research desgin?

is the overall plan for answering the reserach question


NAME
this is the overall plan for answering the reserach question 
research design


What is the experimental type research design?

strategies are clearly id prior to the data collection


NAME
this strategies are clearly id prior to the data collection 
the experimental type research design


What is the naturalisic tpye research design?

are elements of the design envolve over the course of the study


NAME
these are the elements of the design envolve over the course of the study 
naturalistic desing


NAME TYPE OF RESEARCH
What is the decision making process of AIDS patients seeking treatmetn 
naturalistic


NAME TYPE OF RESEARCH
what effect does room temperature have on colonization rate of bacteria in urinary catheters? 
experimental


NAME TYPE OF RESEARCH
what are the sources of stress amoung nursing home residents? 
naturalistic


NAME TYPE OF RESEARCH
does therapeutic touch affect the vital signs of hospitlized patients? 
experimental


NAME TYPE OF RESEARCH
what are the effects of prenatal instrucation on the labor and delivery outcomes of pregant women? 
experimetnal


NAME TYPE OF RESEARCH
what are the health care needs of the homeless, and what are the barriers they face in having those needs met? 
naturalistic


Describe what makes up study boundaries? (6)

(1)the limit the scope of the study (2)makes the study feasible (3)number of participants (4)length of the study (5)conceptual dimensions (6)type and number of questions


NAME
this limits the scope of the study, makes the study feasible, number of participants, length of the study, conceptual dimensions,and type and number of questions 
study boundaries


How do you obtain info? (3)

(1)questionnaires (2)observations (3)interviews


How do you analysis the data for a experimental type reserach?

the data is classifed according to the level of reserach


How do you anaylsis the data for a naturalistic inquiry?

as ongoing process that informs data collection and to interpret the info acquired


What are some ethical considerations that need to be made? (3)

(1)human subjects (2)investigator conduct (3)ethics of the question and design procedures


What are (2)things that are part of philosophical foundation?

(1)ontology (2)epistemology


What is ontology?

is view or definition of reality


NAME
this is a view or definiation of reality 
ontology


What is the epistemology?

is the nature of knowledge and how we come to know it


NAME
this is the nature of knowledge and how we come to know it 
epistemology


What is the philosphical foundation of experimental reserach?

(1)epistemology of logical positivism (2)deductive process (3)hypothesis testing (4)bias eliminated through objective inquiry and analysis


NAME
this is epistemology of logical postivism, deductive process, hypothesis testing, bias eliminated through objective inquiry and anaylsis 
experiemtnal reserach


What are the philosophical foundation of naturalistic inquiry?(6)

(1)holstic (2)the outside world and an individuals ideas are interrelated (3)knowledge based on perception (4)based on reductionism (5)reality is determined by an individuals lenses or baises (6)those who have the experience are most knolwdewable


NAME
this philosophical foundation is based :(1)holstic (2)the outside world and an indivudals ideas are interrelated (3)knowledge based on preception (4)based on reductionism (5)reality is determined by an individuals lenses or baises (6)those who have the experience are most knolwdewable 
naturalistic reserach


What is the holistic approach?

means that there are multiple philosophical traditions


NAME
this means that there are multiple philosophical traditions 
holistic approach


What is reductionism?

is that the human experience cannot be understood by separating the parts


NAME
this is the idea that human expereince cannot be understood by separating the parts 
reductionism


What is integrated research?(4)

(1)multimethod reserach (2)philosophical paradigm of pregmatism (3)generates more in depth knowledge (4)puropseful and logical development combines elements of the thinking action process from both tradiations


NAME
this involves these things: (1)multimethod reserach (2)philosophical paradigm of pregmatism (3)generates more in depth knowledge (4)puropseful and logical development combines elements of the thinking action process from both tradiations 
integrated reserach


How do you select a research tradition and design strategy?(3)

think about (1)what you want to accomplish or reserach purpose (2)preferred way of knowing (3)exisiting knowledge in area of interest


T or F
Positivist assumes that reality exists and that it can be objectively studied and known 
F


T or F
Positivist assumes subjectivity is considered inevitable and desirable in inquiry 
T


T or F
Naturalist relies primarily on the collection and analysis of quantitative information F 
F


T or F
Positivist inquires focus on discrete, specific concepts while attempting to control other aspects of a phenomenon 
T


What paradigm is sometimes referred to as phenomenologic?

Logical positivism


Because scientific method is not concerned with isolated phenomena. What is a key characteristic of the scientific method?

Generalization


What is the setting of naturalistic inquiry?

the field


The process of developing generalizations from specific observations is referred to as (1)

inductive reasoning


What is the type of research that involves the systematic collection and analysis of controlled, numerical information

Experimental research


What type of research involves the systematic collection and analysis of subjective, narrative materials

Naturalistic type research


What is the most ingrained source of knowledge and difficult to challenge

tradition


What is the purpose of the design of an experimental type research?(2)

(1)restrict or control extraneous infleunces (2)provides a degree of certainty that observations are objective


NAME TYPE OF RESEARCH
the purpose of design of this research is to restrict or control extraneous infleunces and provides a degree of certainty that observations are objective 
experimental type


How do you chose the design in experimental type reserach?(3)

based on the (1)literature review (2)level of theory development (3)research question


Describe the sequence of experimental research?

(1)problem statement (2)theory (3)research question (4)DESIGN (5)data collection (6)data analysis (7)reporting


What is the indepedent variable?

is the intervention or treatment


NAME
this is the intervention or treatment 
independent variable


What is the dependent variable?

is the response or outcome


NAME
this is the response or outcome 
dependent variable


What is the differ btwn the independent and dependent variable? (2)

(1)independent variable= is the intervention or treatment (2)dependent variable= response or outcome


What is the intervening variable?

are either confounding or extraneous variables


NAME
these include either confounding or extraneous variables 
intervening variable


What is a concept?

symbollicaly represents observation and experience


NAME
this symbolically represents observation and expereince 
concept


What is the construct?

represetns a model of relationships among two or more concepts


NAME
represents a model of relationships among two or more concepts 
construct


What is the differ btwn the concept and construct? (2)

(1)concept=symbolically represents observation and experience (2)construct= represents a model of relationships among two or more concepts


What is a conceptual definition?

concept expressed in words


NAME
this is a concept expressed in words 
conceptual definition


What is a operational definition?

how the concept will be measured


What is the differ btwn conceptual and operational def?

(1)conceptual def=concept expressed in words (2)operational def=is how the concept is measured


NAME
this is how the concept is measured 
opertaional def


What is the variable?

operational def of a concept assigned numerical variable


NAME
this is an operational def of a concept assigned numerical variable 
variable


NAME
this is the presumed cause of the dependent variable 
independent variable


What is the intervening variable?

is the phenomenon that has an effect on the study of the variable?


NAME
this is the phenomenon that has an effect on the study of the variable 
intervening variable


NAME
this is the phenomenon that is affected by the indepedent variable or is the presumed effect or outcome 
dependent variable


the dependent variable is the phenomenon that is affected by the (1)or is the presumed (2)or (3)

(1)independent variable (2)effect (3)outcome


What is a hypothesis?

an educated guess


NAME
this is a testable statment taht indicates what the reseracher expects to find 
hypothesis


hypothesis is a testable statement that indicates what the (1)

researcher expects to find


What are the bias in the plan design? (3)

(1)intervening variable (2)instrumentation (3)sampling


NAME
some of these in the plan design include intervening variable, instrumentation, and sampling 
bias


What are the plan of the design?(3)

(1)bias (2)manipulation (3)control=random group assignment and control group


What are some types of validity? (3)

(1)internal validity (2)external validity (3)reliability


NAME
some types of this include=intenral validity, external vaility, and reliability 
validity


What is internal validity?

are threats to internal validity


NAME
these are threats to intenral validity 
internal validity


What is external validity?

are threats to external vailidty


NAME
these are threats to external validity 
external validity


What are (7)threats to internal validity? (7)

(1)history (2)testing (3)instrumentation (4)maturation (4)regression (5)mortality (7)interactive effects


NAME
some of these include history, testing, instrumentation, maturation, regression, mortality, and interactive effects 
threats to internal validity


What are some threats to external validity? (2)

reactivity and realism


NAME
some of these include reactivity and realism 
external validity


What is how is reactivity a threat?

is the extent to which the subjects are responding to the condition of being part of the study


How is realism a threat to external validity?

the extent to which the experimental conditions stimulate the actual life situations to which the population is exposed


What is the purpose of a naturalistic design's reserach?

to describe, understand, or interpret daily life experiences


NAME
the purpose of this reserach is to describe, understand or interpret daily life experiences 
naturalistic design


What is the context of naturalistic design?

the invesitagtor travels to the setting where the human phenomena occurs


NAME
the contex of this reserach is the invesitagotor travels to the setting where the human phenomena occurs 
naturalistic design


What is the pluralistic perspective of reality in a naturalistic design?

means the same info may have different meaning or pluratisc interpretations by different indivudals


NAME TYPE OF RESEARCH
the pluralistic perspective of realitiy for this reserach is that the same info may have different meaning or plurastic interpretations by different indivudals 
naturalistic design


What is transferability?

is not generalizable but to generate explanations, theories, and principles


NAME
this is not generalizable but to generate explanations, theories and principles 
transferability


Describe naturalistic design

(1)is a pluralistic perspective of reality (2)transferability (3)flexibility (4)concern w lanaguage (5)emic/etic perspective (6)is an interactive and analytical process


NAME
this has the following:(1)is a pluralistic perspective of reality (2)transferability (3)flexibility (4)concern w lanaguage (5)emic/etic perspective (6)is an interactive and analytical process 
naturalisic design


How is the naturalistic reserach flexible?

by their is no blueprint


What is the emic perspective?

is the inforamants way of interpreting an experience


NAME
this is the inforaments way of interpreting an experience 
emic perspective


What is the eitic perspective?

is the perspective of those that are external to a group


NAME
this is the perspective of those that are external to a group 
eitic perspective


What is the differ tbwnt eitic and emic perspective?

(1)emic=is the informants way of interpreting an experience (2)etitic=perspective of those that are external to a group


What are some true experimental designs?(3)

(1)random selection (2)control group (3)intervention (4)randomization (5)manipulation


NAME
these include random selection, control group, intervention, and manipulation 
true experimental designs


What is the control group?

is the group that has no exposure to the experiment


NAME
this is the group that has no exposure to the experiment 
control group


What is an intervention?

is the manipulation of the indepdent variable


NAME
this is the manipulation of the independent variable 
intervention


What are some types true experimental design? (4)

(1)posttest only designs (2)solomon four group designs (3)factorial designs (4)counterbalance designs


NAME
these include posttest only designs, solomon four group designs, factorial designs, and counterbalance designs 
true experimental designs


What is solomon 4 group designs?

combines the pretestpostest w postest only design


NAME
this combines the pretestpostest w postest only design 
solomon 4 group design


What are some benefits of the solomon 4 group designs?

ability to detect interaction


NAME
some benefits of this is its ability to detect interaction 
solomon 4 group designs


What is a factorial design?

simultaneous manipulation of 2 or more variables


NAME
this is the stimultaneous manipulation of 2 or more variables 
factoral design


What is the counter balance design?

is more than 1 intervention in which the intervention is manipulated


NAME
this is more than 1 intervention in which the intervention is manipulated 
counter balance design


Describe a quasiexperimental type research

random assignment is absent and has control group and manipulation


NAME
this type of design does not have a random assignment and has control group and manipulation 
quasiexperimental type reserach


What are posttest only designs?

are random assignment of individuals to two groups w Collection of data after the intervention.


NAME
these are random assignments of individuals to two groups w collection of data after the intervention 
posttest only designs


What is nonequivalant control group?

is the pretest and postest comparision group w.out randominzation


NAME
this is the pretest and postest comparision group w out randomization 
nonequivalant control


What are interrupted time series?

is a repeated measurement of the dependent variable before the intro of the independent variable w no control or comparison group,


NAME
this is a repeated measurement of the dependent variable before the intro of the independent variable w no control group or comparison group 
interrupted time series


What is an advantage if the nonequivalent control group?

control for threat of maturation and time related changes


NAME
an advantage of this is that the control for threat of maturation and time related changes 
nonequivalent control group


What are some things that the researcher should think of in a Quasiexperimental design?

the researcher should be cautious about infering causal relationships in light of limitations


NAME
for this type of design, the reseracher should be cautious about infering causal relationships in light of limitations 
Quasiexperimental design


What are some types of quasiexperimental design? (2)

(1)nonequivalent control group (2)interrupted time series


NAME
there are two types of these: nonequivalent control group and interrupted time series 
quasi=experimental design


What is preexperimental ?

i two of 3 criteria for the experimental are absent and outcomes does not support causal relationships


NAME
this is two or three critera for the experimental are absent and outcomes does not support causal relationships 
preexperimental


What are some types of preexperimental? (3)

(1)oneshot case study (2)pretest postest design (3)static group


NAME
some of these include oneshot case study, pretest design, and static groupo 
preexperimental


What is advanatage of preexperimental?

easier than quasi experimental


NAME
one advantages of this is that it is easier than quasi experimental 
preexperimental


What is a one shot case study?

is when a independent variable is introduced than the dependent variable is measured


NAME
this is when a independent variable is introduced than the dependent variable is measured 
one shot case


What is pretest=postest design?

has several threats to internal validity


NAME
this has several threats to internal validity 
pretest=postest design


What is a static group comparison?

is a comparison group added to the one shot case study


NAME
this is a comparison group added to the one shot case study 
static group comparison


What is nonexperimental?

is the stastical manipulation of data and posthoc manipulation through anaylsis


NAME
this is the stastical manipulation of data and posthoc manipulation through anaylsis 
nonexperimental


What is nonexperimental useful for?

testing a concept that naturally occurs


NAME
this useful for testing a concept that naturally occurs 
nonexperimental


What are some types of nonexperimental? (3)

(1)surveys (2)passive observations (3)ex post facto designs


NAME
some types of these include surveys, passive observations, and ex post facto designs 
nonexperimental


What are surveys?

Are used to measure the prevalence of variables w in a population


What is ex post facto design?

The purpose is to study relationships among variables


NAME
The purpose is to study relationships among variables 
Ex post facto


NAME
These can be used to this: sources of research problems, clinical experience, literature in the discipline, social issues, theories, and ideas from external sources 
Passive observation


T or F
Correlation = causation 
false


What is an advantage of ex post facto design?

It examines and quantifies naturally occurring phenomena


NAME
These can be used to this: sources of research problems, clinical experience, literature in the discipline, social issues, theories, and ideas from external sources 
id topic


Who said
“Well began is half done” 
Id a topic
Aristotle 

Aristotle said (1)

‘well began is half done


What is the research problem?

Is the prexiling or troubling condition


NAME
This is the perplexing or troubling question 
research problem


What is the research question?

Is the statement of a specific question or query the researcher wants to answer


NAME
This is the statement of a specific question or query the researcher wants to answer 
reserach question


NAME
This is a prediction of the answers to the research questions 
hypothesis


What is the statement of purpose?

Is a summary of the overall study goal in which key concepts and variables are id


NAME
This is a summary of the overall study goal in which key concepts and variables are id 
Statement of purpose


What are (2)types of research problems?

(1)experimental (2)naturalistic


NAME
This has two types: experimental an naturalistic 
research problems


Choice is driven by the (1)of the research

purpose


What is the purpose of the literature review? (3)

Id of a research problem (2)orientation to what is known and not known about a subject (3)determine the gaps in the literature


NAME
The purpose of this is to id a research problem, orientation to what is known and not known about a subject, and determine the gaps in the literature 
literature review


When doing a literature review, what kind of literature should you concentrate on? (2)

(1)scientific literature (2)blind or peerreviewed research journals


When doing a literature review, what should you look for? (3)

1)gaps in the knowledge the base (2)how was the current knowledge developed (3)conceptual framework used to inform the problem


What are some databases you can use to local relevant literature? (5)

(1)electronic databases (2)CINAHL (3)health literature (4)MEDLINE (5)PysINFO


What does CINAHL stand for?

Cummulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature


What does MEDLINE stand for?

Medical literature OnLine


MEDLINE is also called (1)

PUBMED


(1)is also called PUBMED

MEDLINE


What does PysINFO stand for?

Psychology info


Which source is the better source,
Primary vs secondary 
primary


What helps to determine the boundaries of research?

Who, what, where how,


How do you determine whether literature is relevant to your problem or topic? (3)

(1)use theoretical framework (2)make sure specific variables and measures must be supported from existing literature (3)determine design based on the structure and content of existing theory related to problem area


What are the components of most research reports? (18)

(1)title (2)abstract (3)intro (4)theory (5)purpose (6)goal or purpose of the research (7)literature review (8)method and instruments and procedures (9)results or findings (10)discussion (11)references (12)theortical base or rationale for the study (13)problem, research question, or hypothesis (14)population and sample (15)methodology (16) manner in which the data is collected and analyzed (17)limitations (18) results and conclusions


T or F
The intro may or may not include in that rationale 
T


What is rationale?

A discussion of relevant theory


NAME
This is a discussion of relevant theory 
rationale


When doing a literature review and you have read the conclusions, you should (1)

Go back and read the problem statement again


What should the conclusion in literature be like?

Be logical following from the theoretical base, the problem statement, and both should complement each other


What are some guidelines for critiquing research or doing a literature review? (6)

(1)how through is the exposure of the literature review (2)are the materials appropriate and up to date (3)How organized is the review (4)does the review fullfill an intended purpose (5)does the review finish w an outline of the state of the art knowledge of the topic? (6)is the language appropriate and does the reviewer paraphrase


What is theory used for?

To guide decisions in health and human service professions


NAME
This is used to guide decisions in health and human service professions 
theory


NAME
This is essential to conduct research 
Theoretical framework


A theory helps a researcher see the (1)

Forest instead of a single tree


NAME
This consists of a constructs and propositions that form a logically interrelated deductive systemproviding a means of logically arriving at new statements from the original propositions 
theory


Draw the health belief model

see powerpoint notes


Research question is used for (1)research

Experimental


1)is used for experimental research instead of queries

reserach question


Queries are used for (1)instead of research questions

naturlistic reserach


(1)are used for naturalistic research instead of research questions

Naturalistic


What is the purpose of research questions in experimental research and queries in naturalistic research?

(1)they are an initial formal entry into the study (2)guides all subsequent steps in the research process


NAME (2)
These are an initial formal entry into the study and guides all subsequent steps in the research process 
reserach question and queries


What should the research question in experimental type research be like?

(1)the question should be concise or narrow


How many levels of research are there?

3


There are (1)levels of research questions

3


Describe level 1 of a research question does

seeks to describe the phenomena that has not been studied


NAME
This seeks to describe the phenomena, describes a topic that has not been studies, and addresses one question in one population 
Level 1 research question


What are some level 1 questions?

What are/what is


NAME
This level of research questions include what are/what is 
level 1


Describe level 2 research questions

Builds on level 1 questions


NAME
This level of research question builds on level 1 questions 
level 2


NAME
This level of research question measures the relationship btwn variables 
level 2


NAME
This level of research question measures the relationship btwn variables What are some level 2 questions? 
What is the relationship btwn the variables in the question


NAME
This level’s research question is what is the relationship btwn the variables in the question? 
level 2


What are some designs for level 1 research questions?(5)

(1)survey (2) exploratory (3)descriptive (4)case study (5)needs assessment


NAME
Some designs for this level of research questions include survey, exploratory, descriptive, case study, and needs assessments 
level 1


What are some designs for level 2 research questions? (4)

Survey (2)correlational (3)passive observation (4)ex post facto


NAME
Some designs for this level of research question include survey, correlational, passive observation, and ex post facto 
level 2


Describe level 3 research questions (3

Includes a predictor/causal variable, a population, and a predicted direction (2)directional /nondirectional hypothesis (3)tests knowledge of theory


NAME
This level of research question includes a predictor/causal variable, a population and predicted direction, directional/nondirectional hypothesis, and tests a knowledge of theory 
level 3


What are some questions for level 3 of the research question?

Why


NAME
This level of research asks why 
level 3


NAME
Some designs for this level of research questions include experimental and quasiexperimental 
level 3


Describe the research queries in the naturalistic inquiry (4)

(1)has various philosophical perspectives (2)development of a broad problem of interest (3)identifies the phenomenon of interest, the location and population of the study (4)specific questions evolve in the field


What are some types of naturalistic queries? (3)

(1)classic ethnography (2)phenomenology (3)grounded theory


NAME
Some types of this include classic ethnography, phenomenology, and grounded theory 
Naturalistic queries


What is classic ethnography?

In this type of query, the researcher learns the roles and describe the cultural patterns of groups


NAME
In this type of query, the researcher learns the roles and describes the cultural patterns of groups 
Classic ethnography


What is phenomenology?

Is the meaning of the human experience as lived by humans


NAME
This is the meaning of human experience as lived by humans 
Phenomenology


What does phenomenology focus on?

The experience from the perspective of indivudals


NAME
This focuses on the experiences from the perspective of individuals 
phemenology


What is grounded theory?

Is used to generate or modify theory (2)queries relate to the structures of the findings


NAME
This is used to generate or modify theory and queries relate to the structures of the findings 
grounded theory


Describe integrating research approaches?

(1)combines different research traditions (2)is knowledge driven (3)chooses from the best method to answer the question (4)can be complimentary (5)may enhance a study’s validity (6)may facilitate the interpretation of the findings


Id (5)common sources of ideas for research problems

1)journals (2)experiences (3)books (4)clincals (5)interviews


The statement of the specific query is refered to as (1)

reserach question


Id two hypothesis and give an example of each (2)

null and directional


List (2)electronic databases that can be used to find info?

medline and CINAHL


What is a primary source?

DIRECT INFO


How is theory used in research?

Is used as a guide to help you


What is epistemology?

is a prefered way of knowing


NAME
This is the preferred way of knowing 
Epistemology


What are (6)six guiding research questions you can use in framing a question

(1)What about this topic of interest to me? (2)What about this topic is relevant to my practice? (3)What about this topic is unresolved in the literature (4)What is my preferred way of knowing ? (5)What societal or professional purpose does knowing about this topic serve? (6)What resources do I have to investigate for this topic?


What are reasons to review the literature? (6)

(1)determine previous research on topic of interest (2)determine level of theory and knowledge development (3)determine relevance of current knowledge base to problem area (4)provide rationale for selection of research strategy


What are (6) steps to conducting a literature review?

(1)determine when to conduct a search (2)delimit what is searched (3)acesss databases for periodicals, books, and documents (4)organize the literature (5)critcally eveulate the info (6)write the literature review


What are (4)reasons to review literature?

(1)determine previous research on topic of research (2)determine the level of theory and knowledge development (3)determine relevance of current knowledge base to problem area (4)provide rationale for selection of research strategy


STOOPED HERE

STOOPED HERE


What are (4)levels of measurement?

(1)nominal (2)ordinal (3)interval (4)ratio


NAME
these are 4 of these nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio 
levels of measurement


What is the nominal level of measurement?

used to categorize characteristics, such as gender, blood type, and race


NAME
this is used to categorize characteristics such as gender, blood type, and race 
nominal level of measurement


What is ordinal level of measuremnt?

ranks objects based on their specfic characeterstic such as heavist to lightest


NAME
this ranks objects based on their specic characteristics such as heavist to lighest 
ordinal level of measurement


What is the interval level of measurement?

specfifies the ranking of objects on a characteristic and the distance btwn the those objects such as a SAT score


NAME
this specifies the ranking of objects on a characteristic and the distance btwn the those objects such as a SAT score 
interval level of measurement


What is the ratio level of measurement? (2)

is the meaning of zero (2)provides the absolute characteristic such as temperature, weight, and height


NAME
this is the meaning of zero and provides the absolute characteristic such as temperature, weight, and height 
ratio level of measurement


What is a statistical anaylses?

is a organized numerical information


NAME
this is a organized numerical information 
statistical anaylyses


What is the statistical anaylses used for?

a method for systematically drawing conclusions


NAME
this is a method for systematically drawing conclusions 
statistical analyses


What are (2) category for statistical analyses?

(1)descriptive (2)inferential


NAME
this can be categorized as descriptive or inferential 
statistical analyses


What is the first level of statistical analyzes?

descriptive


NAME
this is the first level of the statistical analyses 
descriptive


What is descriptive statistical analyses?

is a method of data reduction used to describe and synthesize data


NAME
this is a method of data reduction used to describe and synthesize data 
descriptive statistical analyses


What is frequency distributions?

is toimpose order on numeric data


NAME
this is to impose order on numeric data 
frequency distributions


What is descriptive statistical anylayses used for?

to id data entry error


NAME
this is used to id data entry error 
descriptive statistical analyses


What is one advanatge of descriptive statistical analyses? (2)

makes it convenient to see at a glance highest and lowest scores(2)can easily id the most common score


NAME
this makes it convenient to see at the glance highest and lowest scores and can be easily id the most common score 
descriptive statistical anyalses


What does N stand for?

total sample size


Give some examples of how data can be displayed graphically?

(1)pie (2)histogram (3)polygon


symmetrical distribution is also called (1)and (2)

normal or bell shaped curve


bell shaped curve is also called (1)and (2)

normal or symmetrical distribution


normal curve is also called (1)or (2)

bell shaped or symmetrical distribution


scores on the horizontal lines and vertical lines indicate (1)or (2)

frequencies or percentages


scores on the horizontal lines and vertical lines indicate (1)or (2)

frequencies or percentages


What is central tendency?

is a index of typicalness


NAME
this is a index of typicalness 
central tendency


Central tendency is preferable for (1)

variables on a ratio or interval scale


NAME
this is preferable for variables on a ratio or interval scale 
central tendency


What are (3)kinds ways used to find the central tendency?

(1)mean (2)mode (3)median


NAME
there are three kinds of these: mean, mode, and median 
central tendency


What is the mode?

the number that occurs the most


NAME
this the number that occurs the mst 
mode


NAME
this ids the most popular value 
mode


What ids the most popular value?

mode


Find the mode for
51,51, 52, 53, 53, 53, 53, 54, 55, and 56 
firgue it out


Find the median for
2, 2 , 3, 3, 4,5,6,7,8,9 
firgue it out


NAME
this is insensitive to extreme scores 
median


the median is insensitive to (1)

extreme scores


What is mean?

sum of all values divided by the number of particpants


NAME
this is the sum of all values divided by the number of all particpants 
mean


What is the most important measure of central tendency?

mean


NAME
this is the most important measure of central tendency 
mean


the mean is the most important measure of (1)

central tendency


the mean is used in (1)or (2)

interval or ratio level


What is varability?

is the spread of scores


NAME
this is the spread of scores 
varability


What does variability do?

provides info about scoring patterns of a group


NAME
this provides info about scoring patterns of a group 
varability


T or F
two sets of data w identical means can have different variability scores 
true


What are the most important indexes of variability? (2)

(1)range (2)standard deviation


NAME
these are the most important indexes of varaibility 
range and standard deviation


What is the range?

is the highestlowest


NAME
this is the highestthe lowest 
range


What is disadvantages of range?(3)

(1)unstable from sample to sample drawn from the sample population (2)ignores outliers


NAME
some disadvantages of this include unstable from sample to sample drawn, and ignores outliers 
range


outliers are also called (1)

extreme score


(1)are also called extreme scores

outliers


NAME
this the most variability index 
standard deviation


NAME
this calculated on every value in a distribution 
standard deviation


NAME
this ids the extent to which scores in distrubtion differ from on another 
standard deviation


What is percentages for a normal curve?

68...95 and 99.7


the mean, mode, and standard deviation is used to describe (1)

one variable


What is bivariate statistics?

Describes the relationships btwn two variables


NAME
This type of stats describes the relationships btwn two variables 
Bivariate statistics


What is the contingency table?

Is a 2D frequency distribution


NAME
This is a 2D frequency distibrition 
Contingency table


What is frequency?

Is how many times a data is presented


Contingency tables are usally used w (1) and (2)

Nominal or ordinal data


NAME
This is the most common method of describing the relationships btwn 
Correlation


T or F
There are different types of correlation stastics pending sample size and level of measurement 
Tru


What is the symbol for the correlation coefficant?

r


R is btwn (1)and (2)

1 and 1


If the the slope is positive then what is the correlation cofficant?

1


Describe what a positive correlation means?

The variables increase or decrease in the same direction


If the slope is negative then what is the correlation cofficant?

1


NAME
This means that the variables increase or decrease in the same direction 
Positive correlation


Describe what a negative correlation is?

One variable increases as the other decreases


NAME
This means one variable increases as the other decreases 
Negative correltation


What is the r zero?

When the variables are unrelated


If the variables are not related then the correation is (1)

Zero`


Negative correlation is sometimes called (1)

inverse correlation


(1)is also called inverse correlation

Negative correlation


The close r is to one the (1)

the stronger the relationship


Spearman’s rankorder correlation is sometimes referred to as (1)

Spearman rho


(1)is also called spearman rho

spearman's rankorder correlation


What is the inferential stastics?

determines the extent to which observations in a sample are representative of the population


NAME
this determines the extent to which observations in a sample are representative of the population 
inferential stastics


What is the null hypothesis?

is a statemnt no difference btwn or among groups


NAME
this is a statement no difference btwn or among groups 
null hypothesis


NAME
this provides criteria for deciding whether a hypothesis should be accepted as true or rejected as false, helps the reseracher to make objective decisions about study results, and helps to decide which results are likely to reflect chance differences and which are likely to reflect true hypothesized effect 
hypothesis testing


What are some benifits of hypothesis testing?(3)

a hypothesis should be accepted as true or false (2)helps researchers to make objective decisions about study results (3)helps to decide which results are likely to reflect change differences and which are likely to reflect true hypothesized effects


What are some possible explanations for the outcome? (2)

(1)experimental treatment was successful (2)the difference was due to change


What is hypothesis testing?

a process of disproof or recjection


NAME
this is the process of disproof or rejection 
hypothesis testing


The reseracher seeks to reject the null hypothesis through (1)

statistical test


What is type I error?

is when the researcher says the the null hypothesis is false when it is really true


NAME
this is when the reseacher says the null hypothesis is false when it is really true 
type I error


What is type II error?

is when the reseracher says the null hypothesis is true but it is really false


NAME
this is when the reseracher says the null hypothesis is true but it is really false 
type II error


What is the differ btwn type I and type II error?

(1)type I=is when the researcher says the null hypothesis says it is false but it is true (2)type II=is when the researcher says the null hypothesis is false but it is true


the smaller the number the (1)

more creditable the findings


What is signiface level?(2)

cut off point that indicates whether the samples being tested are from the same population or from a different population


NAME
this is the cutt off point that indicates whether the sample being tested are from the same population or from a differnet population 
signifcance level


What are three levels of statistical analysis hierachial used in experimental research? (3)

(1)descriptive stats (2)inferntial stats (3)associational stats


What is descriptive stats?

are used to reduce large sets of observations into more compact and interpretable forms


NAME
this is used to reduce large sets of observations into more compact and interpretable forms 
descriptive stats


What is inferential stats?

are used to draw conclusions about populations parameters


NAME
this is used to draw conclusions about populations parameters 
inferential stats


What are associational stats?

is set of procedures designed to id relationships btwn multiple variables and to determine whether knowledge of one set of data allows the investigator to infer or predict the characeristics of another set of data


NAME
this is a set of procedures designed to id relationships btwn multiple variables and to determine whether knowledge of one set of data allows the investigator to infer or predict the characeristics of another set of data 
associational stats


NAME
this provides techniques to reduce large sets of of data into smaller sets w/o sacrificing critical data 
descriptive stats


What are (3)things you can conclude if the significance level is .05?

(1)there the reseacher is 95% sure he or she is correct (2)the is a risk that out of a 100 samples, a null hypothesis would be rejected 5 times (3)in 95 out of 100 cases a true null hypthesis would be correctly accepted


What are (3)things you can conclude if the signficance level is .08?

(1)the researcher is 92% he is correct (2)out of 100 samples, a true null hypothesis would be rejected 8 times (3)in 92 out of 100 cases, a true null hypothesis would be correctly accepted


What are (4)things you can conclude if the significance level is .01?

(1)the researcher is 99% he is correct (2)out of 100 samples, a true null hypothesis would be rejected 1 time (3)in 99 out of 100 cases, a true null hypothesis would be correctly accepted (4)w. 0.01 significance level the risk of making a type I error is lower


W a (1)significance level the risk of making a type I error decreases

.01


W a .01 significance level the risk of making a (1)decreases

type I error


When the hypothesis is nondirectional you use a (1)

two tailed test of significance


when the hypothesis is (1)you use a two tailed test of significance

nondirectional


When the hypothesis is directional use a (1)test of significance

one tailed test


When the hypothesis is (1)use a one tailed test of significance

directional


Compare and contrast one tailed and two tailed test? (2)

(1)onetailed testused on the hypothesis is non directional and is more stringent and has the least chance of type I error (2)twotailed=is used on directional hypothesis and has more chance of a type I error


NAME
this test of significance is more stringent and has the least chance of type I error 
twotailed test


NAME
this test of sifnifiance is has more chance of type I error 
one tailed test


What are some assumptions of parametric stats?(3)

(1)normal distribution (2)interval or ratio level measurements (3)homogeneous variables


NAME
this type of stats provides techniques to reduce large sets of of data into smaller sets w/o sacrificing critical data 
descriptive stats


What are (3)things you can conclude if the significance level is .05?

(1)there the reseacher is 95% sure he or she is correct (2)the is a risk that out of a 100 samples, a null hypothesis would be rejected 5 times (3)in 95 out of 100 cases a true null hypthesis would be correctly accepted


What are (3)things you can conclude if the signficance level is .08?

(1)the researcher is 92% he is correct (2)out of 100 samples, a true null hypothesis would be rejected 8 times (3)in 92 out of 100 cases, a true null hypothesis would be correctly accepted


What are (4)things you can conclude if the significance level is .01?

(1)the researcher is 99% he is correct (2)out of 100 samples, a true null hypothesis would be rejected 1 time (3)in 99 out of 100 cases, a true null hypothesis would be correctly accepted (4)w. 0.01 significance level the risk of making a type I error is lower


W a (1)significance level the risk of making a type I error decreases

.01


W a .01 significance level the risk of making a (1)decreases

type I error


When the hypothesis is nondirectional you use a (1)

two tailed test of significance


when the hypothesis is (1)you use a two tailed test of significance

nondirectional


When the hypothesis is directional use a (1)test of significance

one tailed test


When the hypothesis is (1)use a one tailed test of significance

directional


Compare and contrast one tailed and two tailed test? (2)

(1)onetailed testused on the hypothesis is non directional and is more stringent and has the least chance of type I error (2)twotailed=is used on directional hypothesis and has more chance of a type I error


NAME
this test of significance is more stringent and has the least chance of type I error 
twotailed test


NAME
this test of sifnifiance is has more chance of type I error 
one tailed test


What are some assumptions of parametric stats?(3)

(1)normal distribution (2)interval or ratio level measurements (3)homogeneous variables


WHERE LEFT OUT FOR JESSICA

WHERE LEFT OFF W JESSICA


What is the differ btwn deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning?

Deductivebreak something specfic into general broader parts
Inductive=goes from general to specific Abductive=coming up with new theories that are not known 

What is the differ btwn deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning?

Deductivebreak something specfic into general broader parts
Inductive=goes from general to specific Abductive=coming up with new theories that are not known 

What is the differ btwn internal and external validity?

Internal validity – the ability to answer research question correctly
External validity=is the ability make generalizations about your findings. 

What is the differ btwn internal and external validity?

Internal validity – the ability to answer research question correctly
External validity=is the ability make generalizations about your findings. 

What is the differ btwn internal and external validity?

Internal validity – the ability to answer research question correctly
External validity=is the ability make generalizations about your findings. 

What is the differ btwn deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning?

Deductivebreak something specfic into general broader parts
Inductive=goes from general to specific Abductive=coming up with new theories that are not know 

Nominal measurements involve a simple (1)

label


Rank order questions are examples of (1)

classifcations


W ratio level measures there are real, rational (1)

ordinal


Unlike ordinal measures, interval measures involve (1)btwn points on the scale

absolute zero point


A descriptive index from a population is called (1)

parameter


An (1)is a systematic arrangement of aunatitative data from the lowest to highest values

frequncy disbtrubtion


A (1)is common way of presenting frequncy info in graphic form

frequency polygan


A distribution is described as (1)if the two halves are mirror images of each other

symmetrical


A distribution is described as (1)skewed if its longer tail points to the left

negative


A distrbution that has only one peak is (1)

unimodal


Many human charactersitcs, such as height, intelligenace, are distributed to approx an (1)

bell shaped curve


Measures that summarize the typical value in distrubtion are known as measures of (1)

central tendency


Measures of (1)are concerned w how spread out the data are

variability


When scores are not very spread out, the sample is said to be (1)w respect to the variable

homogenous


What is homogenous in stats mean?

is when the scores are not spread out (not that different)


NAME
this is when the scores are spread out 
heterogenous


What is heterogenous in stats means?

that the scores are spread out


What is the differ btwn heterogenous and homogenous ?

(1)homogenous=is when the scores are not spread out (2)hetegenous=when the scores are spread out


Descriptive stats for 2 variables examinted simultaneous are called (1)

bivariate descriptive stats


What are bivariate descriptive stats?

are descriptive stats for 2 variables that are exaimted sumultenously


NAME
this is descriptive stats for 2 variables that are examined sumultenously 
bivariate descriptive stats


Relationships are described as (1)if high values on one variable are associated w low values on the second

negatively correlated


the most commonly used correlation index is (1)

pearson r


Researchers using quantitive analysis apply (1)to draw conclusions about a pop based on info from a smaple

inforational stats


Sampling distrubtions of means have a (1)distrubtion

normal


the desired degree of risk making (1)error is established by the reseracher

type I


tests that involve the estimation of parameters are refered to as (1)

parametric stats


What are parametric stats?

are tests that involve the estimation of parameters


The most commonly used (1)are the .05 and .01 levels

significance levels


using alpha=.01 rather than alpha=.05 increases the risk of committing a (1) error

type II


In a (1)differences in means for two groups are tested while an (2)differences in means for three or more groups are tested

(1)t test (2)f test


(1)is also called the f test

ANOVA


(1)is also called the ANOVA

f test


the statistic computed in an analysis of variance is the (1)statistic

F


When both the independent and dependent variables are nominal measures, the test sttistic usually calculated in the (1)

chisquare test


the analysis that would be used to predict patient's postoperative fatigue levels on the basis of three preoperative characetrestics would be (1)

multiple regression


the square of (1)indicates the proportion of variance accounted for in a dependent variable by several indpendent variables

r


NAME THE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLE
does the assertiveness training improve the effectiveness of psychaiatric nurses? 
independent=the effectivness of training
dependent=the nurses 

NAME THE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLE
does the postural positioning of patients affect their respiratory functioning 
indpendent=postral postioning
dependent=respiratory function 

NAME THE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLE
is the psychological well being of patients affected by the amount of touch received from nursing staff? 
(1)independent= touch (2)dependent= well being of the patient


NAME THE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLE
is the incidence of decutbius ulcers reduced by more frequent turning of patients? 
independent=frequent turning of patients
dependent=ulcers 

NAME THE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLE
are people who are abused as children more likely than others to abuse their own children? 
independent= abused children (2)absused children of their own


NAME THE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLE
is tolerance for pain related to a patient's age and gender? 
independent=age and gender
dependent= tolerance for pain 

NAME THE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLE
is the number of prenatal vistis of pregnant women associated w labor and delivery outcomes? 
independent= number of pregant women
dependent= labor and delivery outcomes 

NAME THE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLE
are levels of depression higher among children who experience the death of sibling than among other children? 
independent=children from both groups
dependent= the level of depression 

NAME THE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLE
is compliance w a medical region higher among women than among men? 
independent= gender
dependent= compliance w medical regimen 

NAME THE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLE
is anxiety in surgical patients affected by structured preoperative teaching? 
independent= teaching
dependent= anxiety 

in quantitative studies, the people who are being studied are often refered to as (1)they may also be refered to as (2)in both qualitative and quantitative studies

(1)subjects (2)participants


the abstract qualities in which a researcher is interested are referred to by both qualititave ad quantitative researchers as (1)

concepts


A (1)a term used primarily an quantitative reserach, is a quality of a person, group, setting or situation that takes different value

indpendent


the variable that the researcher wants to be understand, explain, or predict is known as the (1)variable or the (2)variable

(1)dependent (2)outcome or predictor variable


a variable that is irrevlant in quantitative investigation and needs to be controlled is called an (1)variable

confounding


the pieces of info obtained in the course of a study are collectively known as the (1)

data


Quanitative researchers carefully specify how to measure concepts of interest, resulting in (1)

operational def


when the data are form of narrative description, the are (1)

natrualistic


While quantitative researchers are intrestied in studying relationships btwn variables, qualitative researchers examine (1)

pattern assocations


the higher the daily caloric intake, the greater the weight expresses the presumed (1)relationship

cause and effect


the process of developing generalizations from specfic observations is referred to as(1)

indeductive reasoning


the process of developing specfic predications from general principles is (1)

deductive reasoning


two important criteria for evulating the quaility of quantitative studies are (1)and (2)

validity and reliability


the qualitative reserach, the worth of the study can be evaluated through assessments of its (1)

creditability


When researchers use multiple referrents to draw conclusions, they are using (1)

integrated method


In thinking about how research findings can be used in other settings or contexts, quantitative researchers are concerned about (1)and qualitative researchers are concerned about (1)

(1)generalization (2)transferability


T or F
the naturalist paradigm asssumes that reality exists and that it can be objectively studied 
true


T or F
the postivistic paradigm focuses are discrete, specific concepts while attempting to control others 
true


T or F
Naturlist paradigm is not constrained by ethical issues 
false


T or F
inquires in the naturalist paradigms give rise to emerging interpretations that are grounded in peoples experiences 
true


T or F
the reserach problem, " What effects does room temperature have on the colonization rate of bacteria in urinary catheters? is best suited for qualitative research methods 
false


T or F
the reserach problem is "what is the meaning of hope among stave IV cancer patients" is best suited for the qualitative reserach methods 
true


T or F
the dependent variable is the presumed cause 
fals


T or F
the dependent variable is the main outcome of interest in the study 
true


T or F
the occurence of an event concurrently w the intro of an intervention that can affect the outcome of a study is called a history threat 
true


T or F
in factorial design subjects are assigned at random to a combo of treatments 
true


the dependent variable can also be called the (1)or (2)

outcome or criterion variable


(1)can also be called the outcome variable

dependent


(1)can also be called the outcome variable

dependent


the independent variable can also be called the (1)

predictor variable


(1)can also be called the predictor variable

independent


T or F
descriptive stats make up the first level of statsical anaylisis 
true


T or F
the mean is the most important measure of central tendency 
true


T or F
a quaiexperimental design that involves repeated observations over time is referred to a timeseries design 
true


T or F
a primary objective of true experimental design is to enable the researcher to infer causal relationship 
true


T or F
the manipulation that the researcher introduces is referred to as the dependent variable 
false


T or F
correlation proves causation 
false


T or F
a positive correlation indicates that as the numerical values of one variable increases or decrease, the values for the other variables also change in the same directions 
true


T or F
spearman rho is calculated on interval level data 
false


T or F
statistical inference is based on the process of generalizing from samples to populations from which the samples are derived 
true


T or F
if a hypothesis is nondirectional, it usally assumses that extreme scores can occur at either end of the curve or in the tail 
true


Draw a chart of the various types of desgins

see notes


Draw a chart of the various types of desgins

see notes


Draw a chart of the various types of desgins for exp research

see notes


Draw a chart of the various levels of reserach quetsions

see notes


Draw a chart of the various levels of reserach quetsions

see notes


Draw a chart of the various levels of reserach quetsions

see notes


Draw a chart of the various levels of reserach quetsions

see notes


Draw a chart of the various levels of reserach quetsions

see notes


STOPPED HERE

STOPPED HERE


Draw a chart of the differ designs for experimental and what they look like

see notes


Draw a chart of the differ designs for experimental and what they look like

see notes


Draw a chart of the differ designs for experimental and what they look like

see notes


Draw a chart of the differ designs for experimental and what they look like

see notes


What is ex post facto latin for?

after the fact


NAME
this latin for after the fact 
ex post facto


What is ex post facto design?

are conducted on phenomans that have already occured and cannot be manilpulated


NAME
this type of experimental design is conducted on phenomona that have already occured and cannot be manilpulated 
ex post facto design


What are (3)characteristics of a trueexperimental design?

(1)randomization (2)control group (3)manipulation of X variable


What are (3)characteristics of a trueexperimental design?

(1)randomization (2)control group (3)manipulation of X variable


What are (3)characteristics of a trueexperimental design?

(1)randomization (2)control group (3)manipulation of X variable


What are (3)characteristics of a trueexperimental design?

(1)randomization (2)control group (3)manipulation of X variable


What is the Quasi experimental design?

has only a control group and manipulation w NO randomization


NAME
these experimental reserach design does not have any randomization 
Quasi experimental and possible preexperimental (remember def is design lacking 2 or 3 of the criteria for a true experimental design)


Which experimental design has no randomization?

Quasi experimental and possibly preexperimental


NAME
this has only a control group and manipulation w NO randomization 
Quasi experimental design


What is the preexperimental design?

has 2 or 3 of the criteria for a true experimentation design are absent


nAME
for this type of experimental design in which 2 or more of the criteria for true experimental design are absent 
preexperimental design


What is the nonexperimental design?

used to test concepts that occur naturally


NAME
this experimental design is used to test concepts that occur naturally 
nonexperimental design


What is the differ btwn the different experimental designs? (4)

(1)True experimental=has 4 criteria randomization, control group, and manipulation of X variable (2)quasiexperimental=has only control group and manipulation NO randomization occurs (3)preexperimental=2 or 3 of the criteria of a true experimental design are absent (4)nonexperimental =used for testing concepts that occur naturally


What is the differ btwn the different experimental designs? (4)

(1)True experimental=has 4 criteria randomization, control group, and manipulation of X variable (2)quasiexperimental=has only control group and manipulation NO randomization occurs (3)preexperimental=2 or 3 of the criteria of a true experimental design are absent (4)nonexperimental =used for testing concepts that occur naturally


What is the differ btwn the different experimental designs? (4)

(1)True experimental=has 4 criteria randomization, control group, and manipulation of X variable (2)quasiexperimental=has only control group and manipulation NO randomization occurs (3)preexperimental=2 or 3 of the criteria of a true experimental design are absent (4)nonexperimental =used for testing concepts that occur naturally


What is the differ btwn the different experimental designs? (4)

(1)True experimental=has 4 criteria randomization, control group, and manipulation of X variable (2)quasiexperimental=has only control group and manipulation NO randomization occurs (3)preexperimental=2 or 3 of the criteria of a true experimental design are absent (4)nonexperimental =used for testing concepts that occur naturally


What are the (4)types of experimental designs?

(1)trueexperimental design (2)quasiexperimental design (3)preexperimental design (4)nonexperimental design


NAME
these include (1)trueexperimental design (2)quasiexperimental design (3)preexperimental design (4)nonexperimental design 
types of experimental desings


What are the (4)types of true experimental designs?

(1)post test design (2)solomon 4 group (3)factorial design (4)conterbalance design


NAME
there are four types of this design: post test design, solomn 4 group, factorial design, and counterbalance design 
true experimental design


What are (2)types of quasi experimetnal design?

(1)nonequivalent design (2)interrupted times series


NAME
there are two types of this design: nonequivalent design and interrupted times series 
quasi experimental design


What are some different types of Preexperimental designs? (3)

(1)one shot case study (2)pre test design (3)static group


NAME
some types of this experimental design include one shot case study, pre=test design, and static group design 
preexperimental design


What are some different types of nonexperimental designs? (3)

(1)surveys (2)passive observations (3)ex post facto designs


NAME
some types of this experimental design include surveys, passive observations, and ex posto facto designs 
nonexperimental designs


NAME DESIGN
R X O or r X O R O r O 
posttest only


NAME DESIGN
Group 1 R O X O Group 2 R O O Group 3 R X O Group 4 R O 
solomon 4 group


Draw what the actual design for the post test only would look like

R X O or r X O
R O r O 

Draw what the solomon 4 group design would actually look like

Group 1 R O X O
Group 2 R O O Group 3 R X O Group 4 R O 

Draw what the counterbalance design would actually look like

R O X1 O X2 O
R O X2 O X1 O 

Draw what the nonequivalent control group design would actually look like

O X O
O O 

Draw what the one shot case study would actually look like?

X O


NAME DeSIGN
R O X1 O X2 O R O X2 O X1 O 
counterbalance design


NAME DESIGN
O X O O O 
nonequivalent design


NAME DESIGN
X O 
one shot case study


What does interrupted times series design actually look like?

O1 O2 O3 X O4 O5 O6


NAME DESIGN
O1 O2 O3 X O4 O5 O6 
interrupted times series design


What does the actually pretest desing look like?

O X O


NAME DESIGN
O X O 
pretest design


What does the actual static group design look like?

X O
O 

NAME DESIGN
X O O 
static group


WHat is nonparametric stats?

stats that uses formulas to test hypothesis when data variables violate one or more assumptions


NAME
this type of stats uses formulas to test hypothesis when data variables violate one or more assumptions 
nonparametric stats


What is parametric stats?

stats that uses formulas to test hypothesis based on assumptions


NAME
this type of stats uses formulas to test hypothesis based on assumptions 
parametric stats


What is the differ btwn nonparametric stats and parametric stats?

(1)nonparametric stats=uses formulas to test hypothesis when data violates one or more assumptions (2)parametric stats=uses formulas to test hypottheis based on assumptions


What is the differ btwn nonparametric stats and parametric stats?

(1)nonparametric stats=uses formulas to test hypothesis when data violates one or more assumptions (2)parametric stats=uses formulas to test hypottheis based on


What is the differ btwn nonparametric stats and parametric stats?

(1)nonparametric stats=uses formulas to test hypothesis when data violates one or more assumptions (2)parametric stats=uses formulas to test hypottheis based on


What is the differ btwn T test and F test? (2)

(1)t test compares the difference means for 2 groups
(2)f test= compares the difference in means for 3 or more groups 

What is the differ btwn T test and F test? (2)

(1)t test test the difference in means of 2 groups (2)f test test s the difference in means for 3 or more groups


Chi sqaure test is also called (1)

X2 test


(1)is also called chi square test

chi square test


What is the differ btwn the X2 test and teh Mann Whitney U test?

(1)X2=elevates the group difference of groups of nominal data (2)Mann Whitney Uelevates the group difference of groups for ordinal data


What is the differ btwn the X2 test and teh Mann Whitney U test?

(1)X2=elevates the group difference of groups of nominal data (2)Mann Whitney Uelevates the group difference of groups for ordinal data


What is the differ btwn the X2 test and teh Mann Whitney U test?

(1)X2=elevates the group difference of groups of nominal data (2)Mann Whitney Uelevates the group difference of groups for ordinal data


NAME
this elevates the difference of groups for ordinal data 
Mann Whiteny U


What is Mann Whitney U?

elevates the difference of ordinal data


What is the X2 test?

elevates the difference btwn groups for numerical data


Draw a chart of the different statistical analysis levels for experimental reserach

see notes


Draw a chart of the different statistical analysis levels for experimental reserach

see notes


Draw a chart of the different statistical analysis levels for experimental reserach

see notes


Draw a chart of the different statistical analysis levels for experimental reserach

see notes


What are the different levels of statsiatc analysis used in experimental reserach?(3)

(1)descriptive stats (2)inferential stats (3)associational stats


What are the different levels of statsiatc analysis used in experimental reserach?(3)

(1)descriptive stats (2)inferential stats (3)associational stats


NAME
during statsical anaylisis of this type of reserach these levels are used :(1)descriptive stats (2)inferential stats (3)associational stats 
experimental type reserach


What is manipulation?

is the ability to w/hold the X variable


NAME
this is the ability to w/hold the X variable 
manipulation


What are 3 assumptions of parametric stats?

(1)samples is derived from a pop w a normal curve (2)variance is homogeneous (3)data are measured at interval level


What are 3 assumptions of parametric stats?

(1)samples is derived from a pop w a normal curve (2)variance is homogeneous (3)data are measured at interval level


What are 3 assumptions of parametric stats?

(1)samples is derived from a pop w a normal curve (2)variance is homogeneous (3)data are measured at interval level


NAME
this type of stats makes three assumptions: they are (1)samples is derived from a pop w a normal curve (2)variance is homogeneous (3)data are measured at interval level 
parametric stats


What are the different types of descriptive stats? (2)

univariate (2)bivariate


NAME
this stats has two types: univariarate and bivariate 
descriptive stats


What are some types of inferential stats? (2)

nonparametric and nonmparametric stats


NAME
there are two types of this stats: parametric and nonparametric 
inferential stats


What are some test used in parametric stats? (3)

(1)t test and f test


NAME
these tests are used in this type of stats: t and f test 
parametric stats


NAME
the X2 and Mann Whiteny U test are used for this type of stats 
nonparametric stats


What are some types of tests used in nonparametric stats?(2)

(1)X2 and Mann Whiteny Tests


What is the differ btwn descriptive, inferential, and assocatioanl stats?

(1)descrptive stats=reduces largest sets of data (2)inferential is used to draw conclusions about population parameters (3)associational stats= is a set of procedures designed to id relationships btwn multiple variables and predications that are amde


What is the differ btwn descriptive, inferential, and assocatioanl stats?

(1)descrptive stats=reduces largest sets of data (2)inferential is used to draw conclusions about population parameters (3)associational stats= is a set of procedures designed to id relationships btwn multiple variables and predications that are amde


What is the differ btwn descriptive, inferential, and assocatioanl stats?

(1)descrptive stats=reduces largest sets of data (2)inferential is used to draw conclusions about population parameters (3)associational stats= is a set of procedures designed to id relationships btwn multiple variables and predications that are amde


What is descriptive stats?

stats used to reduce larges sets of data


NAME
these are stats that are used to reduce 
descriptive stats


What are inferential stats?

are used to draw conclusions about pop parameters


NAME
these are used to draw conclusion about pop parameters 
inferential stats


What are associational stats?

are sets of procedures desgined to id relationship btwn multiple variable and predictions that are made


NAME
these are sets of procedures desgined to id relationship btwn multiple variable and predictions that are made 
assocational stats


Shorter quoations are used for words fewer than (1)

40


A page number in a citation is noted as (1)

p.


use (1)numercals whenever possible

arabic


Use (1)to express all numbers 10 and above

firgues


Use (1)to express numbers that immediately precede a unit of measurement

firgues


When do you use firgues?

to express numbers that are immediately precede a unit of measurement


T or F
consectuvie related tables should be numbered w suffic letters such as "Tables 5a, 5b, and 5c. 
false


T or F
use the % when it is preceded by a numerical such as 22% of.." but use the word percentage when a number is not given 
true


T or F
firgue legends should be printed as footnotes 
false


T or F
Author's names are inverted in the reference list that is surname first 
true


T or
W three or more authors, use an & btwn each author's name in the reference list 
false


T or F
the year of publication is enclosed in the parenthese then followed by a colon in the reference list 
true


T or F
do not underline the title or place quotations mark around it 
true


T or F
capatilize only the first word of the title and the subtitle, if any and proper names in the reference list 
true


T or F
use a comma after the article title to sepearate it from the name of the journal 
true


T or F
use upper and lower case in journal titles, underline the title, and follow it w a comma 
true


T or F
the vol number of journal should be underlined or italicized followed w in a comma 
true


T or F
finish all references w a period 
false


T or F
list the issues number of a journal in parenthese immediately following the number only if each issue begans w page 1 
true


In the text, refer to the tables by (1)

by their numbers


(1)is used in text to abbreviate a citution after the full citation has already been provided one

et al.


Only use (1)ruling in tables

horizontal


Seriation to indicate steps that are separate paragraphs are typed as (1)

1.2.3.


Seriation w/in a paragraph is typed as (1)

(a)(b)(c)


Multiple author cirtation in text are joined a (1)

and


Multiple author citations in the reference list are joined w a (1)

&


Multiple authors in parentheses are joined w a (1)

&


Two or more works by different authors who are cited w/in the same parentheses are listed in what order?

alpha by name


What does X stand for?

independent varaible


What does O stand for?

dependent variable


What does R stand for?

random sample


(1)stands for the independent variable

X


(1)stands for the dependent variable

O
