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103 Cards in this Set
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independent variable

input variable,
variable that is manipulated by researcher, IVs effect the DVs 
dependent variable

output variable,
measured not manipulated (d=describe), changes as result of manipulations of IV 
internal validity, definition

allows researcher to say there is a causal relationship between IVs and DVs

threats to internal validity

may cause relationship instead of IV
1. history 2. maturation, 3. testing, 4. instrumentation, 5. statistical regression, 6. selection, 7. differences in dropouts & non, 8. experimenter bias 
most powerful method of controlling threats to internal validity

random assignment of subjects, ensures equivalency of extraneous factors, "great equalizer"

Other methods of controlling threats to internal validity

1. matching on ex var, 2. blocking  studying ex var as a IV, 3. including only homogenous subj on ex var, 4. ANCOVA  mathematical adj to equalize on ex var

external validity, definition

generalizability of results

threats to external validity

selection effects
testing effects history effects (tx doesn't gen beyond setting/time conducted) demand characteristics (cues in setting) Hawthorne Effects order effects in repeated measures 
how control for threats to external validity

random selection
naturalistic/field research single/doubleblind designs control order effects with counterbalancing 
true vs quasi experimental design

in quasi subjects are not randomly assigned to groups (unlike true) but variables are manipulated (like true).

correlational design

variables not manipulated, no causal relationship assumed only degree of relationship

developmental research

assess variables as function of dev over time i.e. aging on IQ scores. Types: longitudinal, crosssectional, crosssequential

timeseries design

DV measured several times, reg intervals, before & after tx administered. History major threat to internal validity of onegroup timeseries study

singlesubject design

single subject, at least one baseline and one tx phase. Types: AB (baselinetx), reversal, and ABAB (mult baseline)

qualitative (descriptive) research

collect data to develop theory
observation, interviews, surveys, case studies 
sequence of scientific inquiry

1. hypothesis
2. operational definition 3. collect/analyze data to test hypothesis 
predictor variables

independent variables not manipulated, like in correlational designs

criterion variables

dependent variables in nonexperimental studies, ex. correlational designs

levels

refers to values an IV can take
one IV can have multiple levels, ex. treatment (IV): drug, therapy, drug+therapy (3 levels), gender & IQ: gender (IV w/2 levels, M/F) 
factorial design

multiple IV design where you combine every level of one IV with every level of other IV

confound

an extraneous variable that causes changes in DV

experimenter expectancy

a.k.a. Rosenthal effect or Pygmalion effect
change in behavior result of experimenter expectances rather than IV overcome with doubleblind techniques 
random assignment vs. random selection/sampling

Random selection is method of selecting subjects for study (=chance of participation), random assignment happens after subjects have been selected (=chance of assignment to groups).

blocking vs. matching in controlling internal validity threats

matching ensures equivalency of ex var (no addition of IV) while blocking determines effects of ex var (makes it an IV)

Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)

statistical strategy for increasing internal validity
posthoc "matching" 
stratified random sampling

taking random sample from each of several subgroups of total target pop (ex. age ranges). Purpose to ensure proportionate representation of defined pop subgroups

cluster sampling

unit of sampling is naturally occurring groups of ind rather than the ind (ex. random states then school districts then classrooms)

analogue research

conclusions are drawn from lab research about realworld phenomenon (ex. Milgram's obedience to auth studies). often lacks ext val

counterbalancing

controls order effects, subjects receive tx in different order, ex. latin square design

cohort effects

observed differences between age groups may have to do with experience rather than age. problem with crosssectional designs

crosssequential design

combines longitudinal and crosssectional designs.
samples of diff age groups assessed on two or more occasions. control cohort effects, less time consuming than longitudinal (help w/drop out) 
major threat to singlesubject designs

much variablility in target behavior, difficult to establish reliable baseline

protocol analysis

research involving collection and analysis of verbatim reports

ordinal data, def and ex.

order of categories but not HOW MUCH more/less
ranks, likert scales 
interval data vs. ratio data

interval: equal distances but NO absolute zero point (complete absence of attribute), ex temp, IQ
ratio: same as ordinal but with absolute zero, can mult & divide 
negatively skewed distribution

"easy test"
few scores fall at low end (tail on left/negative end w/lump on right) 
positively skewed distribution

"hard test"
few scores fall at high end (tail on right/positive end w/lump on left) 
mean, median, mode

mean: average, preferred measure of central tendency, sensitive to extremes"pulled toward tail"
median: Md, middle value when ordered from low to high, not as effected by extreme scores, useful for skewed distributions Mode: most frequent value, can be more than one (multimodal, bimodal) 
variance

measure of variability of disribution
average of squared differences of each score from mean equal to the square of the standard deviation (s2) 
standard deviation

square root of variance (s)
expected deviation from mean of a score chosen at random 
zscore (standard score)

how many standard deviations a given raw score is from the mean
zscore distributions have sd of 1 and mean of 0 
linear transformation

when transformation of scores does not change distribution shape, i.e. raw scores to zscores

tscores

mean of 50 and sd of 10
zscore of +1 equals tscore of 60 
percentile score vs. rank

score referenced to items on test (70% correct), rank referenced to other scores in distribution (70th percentile70% scored below you)

what is the distribution of percentile ranks?

flat (rectangular) distribution

nonlinear transformation

converting scores will change shape of distribution, i.e. raw scores to percentile ranks

standard deviation curve stats (for normal distribution)

68% fall between +1z or sd,
95% fall between +2z or sd, +1z or sd equivalent to PR of 84/16 or top/bottom 16%, +2z or sd equivalent to 98th PR/top 2% 
sampling error

difference between sample mean and population mean (one type)
statistic (sample value) vs. parameter (population value) 
standard error of the mean

expected difference between sample mean and population mean,
s.d/square root of N, inverse relationship bt sample size and std. error of mean 
twotailed vs. onetailed hypothesis

two tailed states a mean is different from another mean but do not know in which direcction
one tailed states mean is either > or < another mean 
Type I error

found difference when there isn't one
probability of making type I error is alpha, level set by researcher in advance 
Type II error

found NO difference when there in fact IS one
probability of making type II error is beta (usually can't be determined) 
power

probability of declaring there is a difference when one actually exists (rejecting false null hypothesis)
probability of NOT making TII error or 1beta 
factors that affect power

1. sample size: larger > power
2. Alpha: higher > power (but > chance of making TI error) 3. one tailed > twotailed 4. > difference between pop means under study 
parametric test

used for interval and ratio data
ttest and ANOVA assumptions: normal distribution, homogeneity of variance, independence of observations (most imp.) 
nonparametric test

used for nominal or ordinal data
chisquare, MannWhitney U no assumptions about distributions less powerful than parametric tests 
similarity between parametric and nonparametric tests

share assumption that data come from unbiased sample (random selection)

ttest

compare two means (t for two)
one sample: sample mean to known pop mean (df=N1) independent sample: means from two independent samples (df=N (total # subj in study) 2) correlated samples: means of two correlated samples (before/after) (df=N (# pairs)1) 
Oneway ANOVA

one IV and 2+ groups/levels
statistic is F, ratio of between/within group variance does not indicate which means are diff (posthoc tests) 
Factorial ANOVA

2 or more IV and 1 DV
a.k.a. twoway (2IV) or threeway (3IV) ANOVA assmt of both main and interaction effects 
MANOVA

multiple DVs and at least one IV
adv of reducing TI error over separate ANOVAs 
Chisquare

analyze nominal data
compares freq of nominal observations to freq expected under null hypo 
MannWhitney U

compare two independent groups on DV w/RANK ORDERED DATA (like ttest for independent samples)

Wilcoxon MatchedPairs Test

compare two correlated groups on a DV w/RANK ORDERED DATA (like ttest for correlated samples)

KruskalWallis Test

compare two or more independent groups on DV w/RANK ORDERED DATA (like oneway ANOVA)

critical value

determine whether or not to reject null hypothesis (table)
 if obtained value exceeds critical value, reject null value to use depends on preset alpha level and degrees of freedom for statistical test 
F ratio (ANOVA)

comparison of betweengroup variance (tx variance) and withingroup variance (error variance)
desire between group variance to be large (effect of tx) and withingroup error to be small 
ANOVA summary table

Sum of Squares: variability of set of data (between, within)
DF: between = k(# groups)  1, within = Nk Mean Squares: Sum of Squares/DF (illustrates in table the fratio) 
danger of multiple comparisons (in posthoc tests)

increase chance of making TI error
increases "experimentwise error rate" 
which of the posthoc tests is the most conservative?

Scheffe
decreases TI but increases TII chance 
which of posthoc tests is appropriate if only conducting pairwise comparisons?

Tukey
provides enough protection against TI if only pairwise comp are made 
main effects vs. interaction effects

advantage of Factoral ANOVAs
Main: effect of one IV by itself Interaction: effects of an IV at different levels of other IVs 
marginal vs. cell means

Factorial ANOVA
examine main effects by examining difference in marginal means examine interaction effects by examining differences in cell means (if move in opposite directions (cross) across both levels of IV then have interaction effect, if move in same direction i.e. both increase or both decrease (parallel) than no interaction effect 
what is caution in interpretation when you find interaction effects?

must interpret the main effects with caution, main effects don't generalize to all levels of other IVs

name 3 cautions in using Chisquare

1. all observations must be independent
2. each observation can only be classified into one category/cell  must be mutually exclusive 3. %s of observations w/i categories cannot be compared (must convert to #'s) 
correlation coefficient

ranges 1.00 and +1.00
describes magnitude (absolute value) and direction (or+) vary directly (+) or inversely () 
relationship between correlation and causality

correlation is a necessary but not sufficient condition of causality, correlation does not guarantee causality but if causal link is established then they must be correlated

Pearson r (PPM)

calculates the relationship between two variables
most commonly used correlation coefficient in psychology 
What factors affect the Pearson r?

1. linearity: assumes linear rel (not curvilinear)
2. homoscedasticity: assumes = dispersion of scores (not heteroscedasticity) 3. range of scores: wider range will yeild more accurate correlation 
coefficient of determination

squared correlation coefficient
indicates the percentage of variability in one measure accounted for by variability in other measure if IQ & GPA correlate at .70 than 49% of variation in GPA can be explained by variation in IQ (rest is explained by unmeasured factors) 
pointbiserial and biserial coefficients

pointbiserial: relates one continuous var and one dichotomous var (gender)
biserial: two continuous var are correlated but one is artifically made dichotomous (high/low) 
Phi and Tetrachoric coefficients

Phi: when both variables are dichotomous
Tetrachoric: both variables artifically dichotomized 
contingency

correlation between two nominal variables each having 2+ categories (ex. father's eye color and son's eye color)

Spearman's Rho (rankorder corelation)

correlate two variables ordinally ranked (compare two judges rankings on same set of observations)

eta

measures nonlinear relationships

regression

when two variables are correlated, allows you to estimate the value of one variable based on value of other

predictor vs. criterion in regression equation

predictor is value given and criterion is the predictee or value you are determining

regression analysis can be used as a substitute for what?

oneway ANOVA

multiple correlation coefficient (Multiple R)

assesses relationship between two+ predictor var and ONE criterion var

multiple regression

use of scores on more than one predictor to estimate scores on a criterion

the multiple correlation coefficient is has highest predictive power when?

predictor variables are highly correlated with criterion but not each other (multicollinearity)

multiple correlation coefficient is never lower than what?

the highest simple correlation bt an ind predictor and the criterion

The multiple correlation coefficent can never be what?

negative

coefficient of multiple determination

R squared
like the pearson r, this notes the proportion of variance in the criterion variable accounted for by the combo of predictor variables 
stepwise multiple regression

forward and backward
with each addition of predictor variable determine if predictive power of multiple R has increased 
canonical correlation

used with multiple criterion and multiple predictor variables

discriminant function analysis

used to predict criterion group membership, not a criterion score (like multiple regression)

differential validity

when each predictor has different correlation with each criterion variable

logistic regression

used when required assumptions for discriminant analysis are not met (ex. normal dist, homogeneity)
predictors can be nominal primarily used w/dichotomous DVs or when subj can be classified into one of two criterion groups 
multiple cutoff

identifying different cutoff scores on a series of predictors, must score at or above the cutoff on EACH predictor to be predicted as successful on criterion

partial correlation

statistically taking out or "partialling out" effect of a variable to control its effect on correlation

path analysis

structural equation modeling technique
verify simpler causal models that propose oneway causal flows between variables observed variables only 
LISREL

structural equation modeling technique
oneway and/or twoway causal relationships latent and observed variables 