Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/44

Click to flip

44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Direct Sources of Knowledge
From inside you
Intuition
Rationalism
Empiricism
IRE
Indirect Sources of Knowledge
or testimony- the intuitions, reasoning, and observations of others
Authority
Combinations of Direct and Indirect Sources of Knowledge
Common sense
Faith
commitment or belief w/o evidence, not a knowledge but provides framework that makes knowledge possible
Examples of Faith
Spiritualists have faith that their spiritual insights are true
Intuition
a feeling that one trust but cannot directly put into words
Types of Intuition
Empathy
Mystical Vision
EM
Empathy
a feeling that one has in response to others
ex. a mother know the meaning of her baby's cry
Mystical Vision
immediate insight into the nature of reality due to the attainment of a particular state of mind
ex. Buddha's enlightenment
Rationalism
following the rules of formal thought to draw conclusions from premises
Types of Reasoning
Deductive
Inductive
DI
Deductive reasoning
application of self-evident rules to infer conclusions that necessarily follow from a set of premises
ex. all men are mortal, socrates is a man, so socrates is mortal
Inductive reasoning
drawing general conclusions from specific facts or premises
ex. after adding together many pairs of odd numbers, you conclude that the sum of any two odd numbers is an even number
Empiricism
the use of observation
Types of Empiricism
Anecdotal Evidence
Personal Experience
Scientific Method
APS
Anecdotal Evidence
based on a small number of non-random observations
ex. My uncle bob smokes 2 packs of cigs a day and is healthy, therefore smoking does not cause health problems
Personal Experience
based on one's own casual observations ( a potentially large number of observs, but non-random)
Scientific Method
testing hypotheses through the systematic collection and analysis of data
Authority
respected testimony
Types of Authority
Revelation
Tradition
Consensus
Expert
Impartial Witness
RTCEI
Revelation
testimony of the supernatural
ex. the clouds part and God talks to you
Tradition
testimony of one's culture
ex. I was raised Palestinian and taught that the Israeli's are cruel aggressors
Consensus
testimony of the majority
ex. all the other jurors voted "guilty" so he must have been guilty
Expert
Testimony of those believed to have in depth knowledge
ex. the doctor told me i have the measles
Impartial witness
testimony of an observer with no stake in what you believe
ex. two teams disagree, but the referee says the player double-dribbled, so this judgement is accepted
Pros and Cons of different ways of knowing
Intuition
Rationality
Authority
Scientific method
Intuition pro
Very practical for complex everyday tasks
Intution con
no so helpful in unfamiliar situations, difficult to explain and impart to other people
Rationality Pro
tends to be very reliable
Rationality con
the formal rules of thought contain no content, content comes from premises that must rely on other ways of knowing
Authority Pro
doesnt take any effort
Authority con
you can be misled
scientific method pro
works well for control and prediction of an observable phenomena, often reliable even in unfamiliar situations
scientific method con
takes a long time to develop and is often impractical for idiosyncratic situations, less useful with highly complex phenomena, cant help with values or meaning
7 steps to scientific method
1. select a topic
2. form a hypothesis
3. design a study
4. conduct a study (make observations)
5. analyze data
6. draw conclusions
7. communicate results
SFDCADC
Independent variable
what is being changed or manipulated
dependent variable
what is measured (outcome)
confound variable
anything else that factors in
conceptual variables
webster type terms everyone can understand
operational variables
observable, measureable, replicable, specific defintion
Theory
a set of related statements that explain a phenomena
Types of theories
non-scientific
scientific
types on non-scientific theories
supported-tested and passed
unsupported- not tested
disproved- tested and didn't pass
judging the scientific theory
is it testable
parsimonious-or simple
generativity-(amount of new concepts it resulted w/)
scope-how much it explains