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### 25 Cards in this Set

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 Nominal - numerical scale indicate a classification - inclusion in one category is not better/worse, larger/smaller, etc. than another - no proportionality Nominal Examples - male/female - number on athlete's uniform - 1=OA, 2=RA, 3=Normal - Yes/No - Agree/Disagree Ordinal - order or rank - comparison of better than or greater than can be used - no proportionality Ordinal Examples - MMT - Pain Scale - Finish in a race - Likert scale (faculty evals) Interval - equal intervals between numbers, but not related to absolute zero - all "made up" scales - some proportionality Interval Examples - IQ - Fahrenheit - Centigrade - Calendar Years - Gymnastics score Ratio - highest level of measurement - contains all characteristics of other three scales - absolute zero Ratio Examples - ROM - Height - Weight - Force - Kelvin temp 1) How high you jump 2) Massed group or distributed group? 1) Ratio 2) nominal 1) Right vs Left handed? 2) Score of a diver (swimming)? 1) nominal 2) Interval Goni measurement of shoulder Ratio 1) Isokinetic test 2) time to run a mile 1) ratio or interval 2) ratio o Each member of population has an equal chance of being selected o Put all names in a hat and “draw” o Table of random numbers o Become cumbersome with large populations simple random sampling o Pick every nth person from a list o Requires a list of subjects o Ex. – choose every 10th name from a list of 1000 subjects; n = 100 systematic sampling o Used when a certain subgroup must be represented in adequate number o Must identify stratifying characteristic stratified sampling o Frequently used in PT research o Due to limited funding non-probability sampling o Use of readily available subjects o Consecutive sampling – recruit patients as they become available o Volunteers o Most common sampling technique used in PT research o Problem – Self Selection  We do not know what attributes are present in those who volunteer compared with those who do not  Age, Motivation, Activity Level sample of convenience o Researchers identify a few subjects who are then asked to identify other potential members o Ex. – study of patients (ACL) who all return sports activities prior to recommendation o These subjects may be able to identify others snowball sampling o Hand picking of subjects based on specific criteria o Not based on availability (convenience) o Ex. – to test a ROM measurement tool you may specifically pick people with a variety of ROM impairments. purposive sampling o Use table of random numbers  Ex. – 32 subjects; 4 groups; First 8 go into group 1, Next 8 into group 2, etc. random assignment by block o Count off o Frequently used o Ex. – 32 subjects; 4 groups; Count off 1 through 4 systematic assignment o Subjects are matched on important characteristics o These subgroups are randomly assigned o Similar to stratified sampling o Ex. – 32 subjects; 4 groups; divide into male/female subgroups; then assign to groups (ex. – count off); Ensures relatively equal distribution of sex matched assignment advantages and disadvantages of matched assignment o Advantage: ensures equal distribution in variables that are matched (sex) o Disadvantage: other characteristics may not evenly distribute (age, etc) o Ex. – comparison of 4 post-surgery protocols o As they enter study after surgery, they are put in next available group consecutive assignment  One measurement should not precede second measurement in any systematic method  Especially when measurement is separated random ordering