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38 Cards in this Set

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The mean is an arithmetic average and can be utilized at what beginning level of measurement scale?
Interval
Which measurement scale provides a true point as well as equal intervals
Ratio
Which scale of measurement is the least sophisticated
Nominal
Which measurement scale is typical of classroom test?
Interval
Measures of Central Tendency
used to describe the average score of a group of scores.
Measures of variability
describe how spread out a group of scores are or how they spread themselves away from the central tendency(mean).
Measures of relative position
compare a subject's performance to that of the other subjects.
Measures of relationship
describe the degree of relationship between two sets of scores.
Normal Curve
A negatively skewed set of scores is evident when extreme score(s) pull the distribution out of shape and toward the left(-1 direction,tail of the curve).
Mean
the mean is the most widely used measure of central tendency and called the arithmetic mean.
Which measure of central tendency is most appropriate to use with nominal data?
Mode
Which central tendency is the most frequently occuring score?
Mode
Variablity
refers to how scores speard around the central tendency
Standard Deviation
the standard deviation is the square root of the squared deviations from the mean.
Standard Scores
Raw scores are converted using the normal curve to form standard scores.
Z Scores
portrayed as a small z is the raw score minus the mean of the group divided by the standard deviation z=(x-m/s).
In a standard distribution with a mean of 100 and a standard of 15,what is the z score for a score of 115
+1.00
What is the equivalent T score for a score of 34 in a normal distribution where the mean is 20 and the standard deviation is 7?
70
In a normal distribution,what is the CEEB score for a raw score of 85 when the mean is 100 and the standard deviation is 15?
400
Common variance
is the "variation in one variable that is attributable to its tendency to vary with the other"
Continuous Variables
are measured on a scale that changes gradually as though there are divisions between the steps.
Dichotomous Variables
are two levels such that it is either yes-no.
Pearson r:
when data are represented as interval or ratio scales,the Pearson r is the appropriate measure correlation.
Phi:
when both variables are genuine or true dichotomies,this test is used.
A correlation coefficient of .89 can be described as:
strong positive
Two evaluators ranked five dogs for form while running. The ranks assigned each of two days were displayed for each dog. Which correlation would be the most appropriate.
Point Biserial
(Form is in ordinal data while each day represents dichotomous day one-day two).
Null Hypothesis
states that there is no true difference between the mean score of two groups,and if a difference is found,then it is the result of sampling error.
The following information was found in a recent journal article. The mean score for group A was significantly higher than the mean score for group B(p<.01). This statement by the researcher means there is a:
99% probability that the difference occurred due to the manipulation of the independent variable.
Median Test
non-parametric test used when scores are ordinal,or when the score are interval or ratio but do not meet the criteria for parametric that smoothness of distribution.
Sign Test
a non-parametric alternative to the t-test for matched pairs.
Chi Square
a non-parametric test used to find the significance of differences among proportions.
A teacher administered two different forms of a test measuring math achievement to all of her students. Each student took both test. She wants to know if there is a relationship between the scores on the first form and the second form. What statistical technique should she use?
Pearson r(describes the relationship).
If the teacher wanted to know the difference between the raw scores on each form,what should she use?
t-test for independent sample.
What method of research would be used for the following? The researcher hypothesizes that premarital counseling contributed to better marital adjustment. The researcher selected a group of couples who have been married for one year who will undergo premarital counseling and compare them to a group(also married one year) who do not receive premarital counseling.
experimental method
What is the appropriate research design for the following hypothesis? A researcher hypothesized that randomly selected students who received Computer Assisted Instruction will have greater gains in algebra achievement than students who do not.
Pretest posttest control group design
If we decrease the probability of a Type I error by choosing alpha small,we:
increase probability of Type II
A researcher sets out to determine if fifth-grade students in Georgia have a higher or lower self-esteem rating than first-grade classes from several different schools across Georgia. This is an example of what type of sampling?
cluster
Test A and Test B are musical aptitude tests while Test C and Test D are musical attitude inventories. The following correlations were reported. Which technique will break down the relationship among a set of observations and identify a set of primary components that will explain the relationship among the observations?
factor analysis