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132 Cards in this Set

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CHAPTER ONE
Give the threee qualities of social research and explain each.
Systematic-all aspects planned ahead.
Empirical Data-facts based on sensory experiences.
Studies-social and psychological factors
List 4 types of research with examples: Descriptive
Descriptive-discovers facts or describes reality. Ex. What is domestic violence?
List 4 types of research with examples: Predictive
Predictive-makes predictions about what may occur in future or other settings. Ex. Predictions about longevity.
List 4 types of research with examples: Explanatory
Explanatory-asks why something happened. Ex. Why do people become delinquents?
List 4 types of research with examples: Evaluation
Evaluation-used to plan intervention programs, monitor new ones and keep up with existing ones to determine effectiveness
Define two types of research with examples: Basic (pure)
Basic-little concern for practical benefits. Ex. shortest route to bank.
Define two types of research with examples: Applied
Applied-designed with a practical outcome in mind and with hopes that society as a whole will benefit.
How is effective practice maintained?
Managed care closely monitors tx to ensure cost-effectiveness. There is a demand for accountability.
Application of Social Research in human service takes place in five areas. Name them: Behavioral and Social Environments
Behavioral and Social Environments: seeking to gain understanding of people we serve and their enviornments
Application of Social Research in human service takes place in five areas. Name them: Needs Assessment
Needs Assessment: assess needs of people. Highly descriptive. EX. assessing community needs for types of mental health services.
Application of Social Research in human service takes place in five areas. Name them: Assessment of Client Functioning
Assessment of Client Functioning: assessing global functrioning level. Various areas of life accounted for.
Application of Social Research in human service takes place in five areas. Name them: Program Evaluation
Program Evaluation: entails use of scientific research to assess results of PROGRAM and see it it reaches stated goals.
Application of Social Research in human service takes place in five areas. Name them: Practice Effectiveness Evaluation (Macro)
Practice Effectiveness Evaluation: Assesses efficacy of intervention on INDIVIDUAL clients. (Micro)
Address Populations with Special Issues.
Minorities suffer disproportionately from problems workers try to alleviate. Social conditions affect minorities negatively and limit their success.
Describe Steps in Conducting Research: Problem Formulation
Problem Formulation: decide on problem to study for which empirical data can be collected (a researchable problem).
Describe Steps in Conducting Research: Research Design Development
Research Design Development: detailed plain outlining how you will observe. Plan closely followed. Who will be studied, how, and what info will be gathered are always addressed.
Describe Steps in Conducting Research: Data Collection
Data Collection: What kinds of data will be collected and how it will be done.
Regarding Data Collection, describe the two aspects of data collection.
Pilot study-small scale run of larger study
Pretest-preliminary application of data gathering techniques to determine adequacy. Can produce more pretests.
Describe Steps in Conducting Research: Data Analysis
Data Analysis: Necessary to convert raw data into something meaningful like standard scores. Shows whether ideas are confirmed or refuted by empirical reality. Uses statistics.
Describe Steps in Conducting Research: Drawing Conclusions
Drawing Conclusions: drawn from data analysis. Purpose of drawing conclusion is to assess how much support exists for hypothesis.
Describe Steps in Conducting Research: Public Dissemination of Results
Public Dissemination of Results: shares knowledge so that peoplecan do further research as well as use findings for scientific advancment.
Give the Steps in Human Service Practice Intervention: Problem Assessment
Problem Assessment: Specify problem with which you are concerned, which factors might contribute to problem and which aspects of problem will receive priority. Must pose answerable questions.
Give the Steps in Human Service Practice Intervention: Formulation of an intervention strategy.
Formulation of an intervention strategy: One that will be effective in alleviating the problem. Usually several strategies will be identified. Ex. crisis intervention, behavior modification, etc.
Give the Steps in Human Service Practice Intervention:Implementation
Implementation: Implementing intervention strategies identified in previous stage. Therapists are primarily concerned witht he effectiveness of the intervention strategies in creating change in the client system.
Give the Steps in Human Service Practice Intervention:Evaluation
Evaluation: once data is collected it is analyzed to determine what study found. Were goals achieved? What costs? Undersirable side effects?
Give the Steps in Human Service Practice Intervention:Closure
Closure: Termination of the intervention. Suggest more intervention strategies. Suggest other sources to help client.
Give the Steps in Human Service Practice Intervention: Documentation and Dissemination
Documentation and dissemination: necessary to document results on progress note, tx plans, and case closure reports. Share knowledge with colleagues in workshops, articles, and case conferences.
Compare Social Research and Human Research Practice: Problem Formulation
Problem Assessment
Research Design development.
Formulate an intervention strategy
Data collection
Implementation of intervention
Drawing Conclusions
Closure
Give the Steps in Human Service Practice Intervention: Public Dissemination
Documentation and dissemination.
Name the Sources of Knowledge upon which people base decisions for the most part?
Tradition, Experience, Common Sense, Journalism, Science, Scientific practice.
CHAPTER TWO
Describe the various sources of knowledge: Traditional
Traditional: knowledge based on custom, habit or repetition.
Describe the various sources of knowledge: Experiential
Experiential: first-hand, personal observation of events
Describe the various sources of knowledge: Common Sense
Common Sense: practical judgments based on the experiences, wisdoms, and prejudices of a people.
Describe the various sources of knowledge: Journalism
Journalism: personal opinion, bias, much of it based on observation
Describe the various sources of knowledge: Science
Science: method of obtaining objective knowledge about the world through systematic observation. Can also be biased
List 5 distinguishing characteristics that set science apart from other sources of knowledge: Empirical
Empirical: direct observation of world
List 5 distinguishing characteristics that set science apart from other sources of knowledge: Systematic
Systematic: procedures are organized, methodical, public and recognized by other scientists
List the 5 distinguishing characteristics that set science apart from other sources of knowledge: Science searches for causes
Science believes that there is an order to things that can be discussed.
List the 5 distinguishing characteristics that set science apart from other sources of knowledge: Provisional
Provisional: conclusions are always accepted as tentative and subjective to question.
List the 5 distinguishing characteristics that set science apart from other sources of knowledge: Objective
Objective: scients try to avoid having their personal values influence their scientific conclusions.
Theories in Research and Practice: Define theory
A set of interrelated, abstract propostions or statements that offer an explanation of some phenomenon
List the three key elements of a theory: Propositions
Propositions-statements about relationship between some elements in the theory
List the three key elements of a theory: Abstract Systems
They link general and abstract propositions to particular, testable events or phenomena
List the three key elements of a theory: Explanations
They explain WHY something occured
List three main functions of theories in research and practice: Explanation of phenomena
Explaining what will happen under certain conditions and why.
List three main functions of theories in research and practice: Guide for Research and Practice
Helps to focus attention on certain phenomena as relevant to the issue of concern
Note: as related to last answer, integration of multiple observations:
Tells us why something happens, helps to integrate and explain the many observations made in diverse settings by researchers and practitioners.
List three main functions of theories in research and practice: Verification
Determines if the intervention produced the desired results, linking research and practice.
See figure 2.1 p. 29 for...
...how theory verification and practice intervention are linked
Theory Verification
a. theory
b. hypothesis
c. observations
d. research findings
Practice Intervention
a. theory
b. intervention plan
c. intervention
d. intervention outcome
Why are Concepts considered to be the building blocks of theories?
For the scientific endeavor to work, all scientists need to be on the same page about meanings of words and concepts
Explain the term: Defining Concepts.
Mental constructs or images developed to symbolize ideas, persons, things, or events.
What are the two types of definitions of concepts?
Nominal definitions - verbal definitions in which scientists agree that one set of words or symbols will be used to stand for another set of words or symbols similar to dictionary definitions.
what are the two types of definitions of concepts?
Operational definitions - definitions that indicate the precise procedures or operations to be followed in measuring a concept.
How do nominal and operational definitions compare?
Nominal is at the theoretical or abstract level. Operational moves beyond the abstract level to the concrete level of research. Ex. What determines specific poverty line for families.
List three main functions of theories in research and practice: Verification
Determining if the intervention been shown to produce desired results. Notice that: theory verification and practice verification linked
See Figure 2.1 p. 29 for illustration of above: Theory, hypotheses, observations, research findings = theory verification
Versus: Theory, intervention plan, intervention, intervention outcome = practice verification (modeled after research)
Define Concepts.
Concepts are the building bloxcks of theories. They are mental constructs or images developed to symbolize ideas, persons, things, or events and keeps scientists on same page.
Name the two types of definitions of Concepts.
Nominal definitions: verbal definitions in which scientists agree that one set of words or symbols...
...cont.
...will be used to stand for another set of words or symbols (theoretical abstract level)
Two types of definitions of concepts cont.
Operational Definitions: definitions that indicate the precise procedures or operations to be followed in measuring a concept.
...cont.
Ex. for both levels see "poverty" p. 30. What determines the specific poverty line for families.
...cont.
Operational moves beyond abstract to concrete level of research.
What is the name given to this process of moving from nominal level to operational level?
This movement is called measurement.
Last thoughts: Scientific investigation involves moving from a general theory to a specific researchable problem.
A part of this process involves developing an hypotheses.
Define hypotheses.
Testable statements of presumed relationships between two or more concepts.
cont...
A statement of what we expect to find rather than what has already been determined to exist.
cont...
The purpose: to test the accuracy of a theory.
Define variables.
Things that are capable of taking on more than one value.
What types of correlations are there with regard to variables and their relationships?
Positive relationships: values of variables change in the same direction (negative relationships = change in opposite directions)
Describe the guidelines when developing hypotheses: Hypotheses are linked to more abstract theories.
Why? Because theories provide explanations for why things happen.
Describe the guidelines when developing hypotheses: Importance of independent and dependent variables in hypotheses be clearly specified.
Explained: Independent variable is active variable believed to produce change in dependent variable. Dependent variable is passive.
Describe the guidelines when developing hypotheses: Precise nature and direction of relationship between variables must be specified.
Note: Correlational variables must be specified
Describe the guidelines when developing hypotheses: Hypotheses should be so stated that they can be verified or refuted.
It's true!
Describe the guidelines when developing hypotheses: All the concepts and comparisons in hypotheses must be clearly stated.
Again. All parts of statement have to be clearly defined and understood.
What must be remembered about concepts and definitions among minority populations.
They can appear biased. Careful here! Operational definitions must present an accurate view of minorities.
Perspectives in Science: Define deductive reasoning
Involves deducing or inferring a conclusion from some premises or propositions.
Perspectives in Science: Define inductive reasoning
Involves inferring something about a whole group or class of objects from our knowledge of one or a few members of the group or class.
Perspectives in Science: Notes on inductive: we test one or a few hypotheses derived from a theory and then infer something about validity of the theory as a whole.
It takes us from observations/interventions to some assessment of theory as a whole
Perspectives in Science: Explanations tell us why something happens or specifies the conditions under which something occurs.
Theories focus on two types of explanations: Nomothetic and Idiographic
Perspectives in Science: Define Nomothetic
Focus on a class of events and attempt to specify the conditions that seem common to all those events.
Perspectives in Science: Nomothetic cont...
The explanation is an attempt to develop knowledge that can be generalized beyond a single study or set of circumstances.
Perspectives in Science: Nomothetic cont...
Example of nomothetic explanation: juveniles who shoplift have weak attachments to parents.
Perspectives in Science:
Nomothetic cont...
Weaknesses of explanation: not all juveniles who shoplift have weak attachments. Weak attachments is only one of many parts that may equally affect whether or not they steal.
Last note on deduction theory: this is where a hypotheses is drawn from some premise or proposition.
Deduction theory cont. To infer a conclusion largly from propositions that make up a theory. If correct, then the hypotheses logically derived.
More on perspectives in science:
We are moving from the general to the specific and from theory to hypothesis or treatment/intervention plan.
Perspectives in Science cont: First type of explanation is nomothetic to repeat. Second type is idiographic.
Idiographic Explanation: focus on a single person, event, or situation and attempt to specify the conditions that helped produce it.
Perspectives in Science: Here, you would focus once again on the juvenile who shoplifts.
ALL factors which influenced him are considered now. See causality in terms of complex pattern of factors over a period of time (not ALL instances of shoplifting).
Perspectives in Science: with idiographic explanations, knowledge results from a thorough understanding of what?
The particular as opposed to other factors and forces influencing ALL shoplifters.
Perspectives in Science: Weakness of idiographic explanations?
Limited generalizability. The improbability of extending knowledge beyond one particular case.
Perspectives in Science: Nomothetic and idiographic wxplanations can be combined. Both have benefits.
Explain: Nomethetic - surveys, experiments are used to develop nomothetic explanations
Benefits of both explanations cont...
Explain: Idiographic - field research, in-depth interviews, and historical comparative research used to develop idiographic explanation
Paradigms in Science: Define Paradigm.
A general way of thinking about how the world works and how we gain knowledge about the world.
Paradigms in Science: More please.
Paradigms are fundamental orientations, perspectives, world views
Paradigms in Science: Give some examples.
Positivist approach aka logical empiricism. Argues that world exists independently of people's perceptions of it.
Paradigms in Science: Give some examples. More on the Positivist approach or logical empiricism
This approach is the most widely held approach among natural scientists and some social scientists
Paradigms in Science: Positivist approach cont...
Social scientists who are positivists lean towards quantative research (measurement using numbers and counts)
Paradigms in Science: Positivist approach cont...
Positivists also tend to use deductive and nomothetic explanations and survey research.
Paradigms in Science: Postivists also use Qualitative Research. Define it.
Qualitative research involves data in the form of words, pictures, descriptions, or narratives rather than numbers or counts.
Paradigms in Science: Tell me more.
Qualitative research associates with inductive and idiographic approaches.
Paradigms in Science: Define nonpositivist approach (aka interpretive approach)
Perceives social reality as having a subjective component and as arising out of the creation and exchange of sociel meanings during social interaction.
Paradigms in Science: Tell me more on the nonpositivist approach.
It focuses on the subjective and personal meanings that people attach to themselves and what they do.
Paradigms in Science: Define interactionist approach.
Interactionist or Versteshen (Max Weber) approach looks at how people do, feel, and think about what is happening to them.
Paradigms in Science: More on interactionist? Yes. Social reality has a subjective component that the positivist misses.
People attach personal meanings to what they do which must be measured.
Paradigms in Science: List some differences between Positivist and Non-positivist
P say subj. meaning difficult to quantify and study-non P argue its key part of social reality.
Paradigms in Science: List some differences between Positivist and Non-positivist cont...
P discover what exists in the world while Non-P help create social reality through their scientific work.
Paradigms in Science: List some differences between Positivist and Non-positivist cont...
Both P and Non-P are beneficial and have their strengths.
Cause and Effect Relationships: What are we looking at here?
Here we look at WHY something occured.
Cause and Effect Relationships: More?
Yes. Causality-independent variable (x) is the factor (or one of several factors) whose changes produces variation in dependent variable (y). Here, causality can only be inferred.
Cause and Effect Relationships: More please...
Well, becasue causality cannot be observed directly, it must be inferred from observation of other factors.
Cause and Effect Relationships: Okay, so what are the rules?
To infer the existence of a causal relationship, the following must be demonstrated.
To infer the existence of a causal relationship demonstrate:
1. A statistical association between ind. and dep. variable.
To infer the existence of a causal relationship demonstrate:
2. The independent variable must occur prior in time to the dependent variable
To infer the existence of a causal relationship demonstrate:
3. The relationship between ind. and dep. variables must not be spurious (disappear) when effects of other variables are taken into account.
CHAPTER THREE: Ethical Issues in Social Research. Define ethics.
Ethics is study of what is proper and improper behavior, of moral duty and obligation.
Ethical Issues: Who are researchers accountable to?
Those who participate in research. Sponsors of research. Those who stand to benefit from research.
Minority Experience: Need for Ethical Standards. Which two events stand as major catalyst for efforts to codify set of ethical standards?
WW II - cruel experiments conducted on Jews with no concern for ethics. The Tuskegee Experiment US PHS - Despite a cure available for syphilis, it was withheld from patients. Many passed it on to family members. Some died.
Need for Ethical Standards: Ethical standards for medical research established in 1966 by Public Health Services.
As follows: 1. full disclosure of relevant info should be given to participants.
Need for Ethical Standards: Ethical standards of 1966 cont...
2. Decision to participate must be completely voluntary.
Need for Ethical Standards: Ethical standards of 1966 cont...
3. Researchers must obtain documented, informed consent from participants.
Need for Ethical Standards: The Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare established IRB's to ensure guidelines were followed.
IRB explain? Institutional Review Boards.
Ethical Standards cont... List IRB criteria:
1. risks to subject minimized
2. Risks to subjects reasonable with anticipated benefits.
Ethical Standards cont... List IRB criteria:
3. Selection of subjects is equitable.
4. Informed consent necessary from subject or guardian
Ethical Standards cont... List IRB criteria:
5. Research plan makes provision for monitoring safety of participants
6. Confidentiality maintained
Ethical Standards cont... List 3 quintessential requirements for ethical conduct of research.
1. respect for persons
2. beneficience = minimizing harm
3. justice
Are any groups exempt from IRB review: Yes.
Elaborate. 1. evaluation of instructional procedures. 2. educational testing.
Are any groups exempt from IRB review cont...
3. survey or interview techniques. 4. observation of public behavior. 5. documentary research
Are there any exceptions?
Yes. Research dealing with sensitive behaviors such as drug & alcohol use, sexual conduct.
List the six basic ethical issues that arise in social science research.
1. informed consent 2. deception 3. privacy 4. physical or mental distress 5. problems w/sponsored research 6. scientific misconduct 7. advocacy