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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Explain each step of the research process
The researcher must identify a problem, narrow it and state it as a question or hypothesis. Then a review of related literature must be conducted to identify strategies and information to further define the problem and carry out the study. Participants must be selected for data collection. Data has to be collected from the participants. The data is analyzed and interpreted by identifying themes and results. The findings must be reported and evaluated by drawing conclusions and conveying the importance of the research.
Discuss identifying a problem to guide research and the forming of a research question (s) or hypothesis.
The researcher must identify a problem of interest that is related to education to research. The four main sources of research (theories, personal experience, replication and library searches) can be used to help determine a problem. The problem must be narrowed for focus and manageability. The hypotheses in a qualitative study are generated as a result of the study. In a quantitative study, the hypotheses are derived from a review of related literature or theory.
1c. Define and explain the purpose of the literature review process
A review of the literature is the systematic identification, location and analysis of documents containing information related to the research problem. The major purpose of the literature review is to identify existing research on a chosen problem. A review of literature can identify instruments, research strategies and procedures that have and have not been productive. Its also justifies the significance of a study.
What are methodology issues to consider when designing a study?
Methodology issues to consider in quantitative research are ignoring measurement errors, performing multiple comparisons and using small samples. All of which can cause invalid results. In qualitative research it is necessary to ensure credibility by including a methods section, triangulation for cross-validation and transferability.
Next, participants or samples are selected for data collection. The data is collected from the participants. The data is then analyzed and interpreted by looking at the themes and results.
Compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative research as methodologies.
1. Research involving at least one variable being manipulated or varied by researcher to determine the effects of the variation.
2. Deductive reasoning (developing specific predictions from general principles, observations or experiences).
Compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative research as methodologies.
1. Natural setting with variables studied as they exist.
2. Portrait of a group that describes social phenomena.
3. Specific research to a unique setting
4. Inductive reasoning (developing generalizations from a limited number of related experiences and observations).
What is the purpose of each?
The purpose of quantitative research is to generalize about or manipulate phenomena (determine cause and effect relationship).
The purpose of qualitative research is to provide rich, thick descriptions of people and settings (social phenomena).
List strengths and weaknesses of qualitative.
1. Flexible
2. Behavior viewed as whole
3. Subject perceptions important
4. Rich descriptions
1. Time consuming
2. Narrative results
3. Costly to researcher
4. No suggested improvement
List strengths and weaknesses of quantitative research.
1. Uncontaminated data
2. Good generalizability
3. Simple design
4. Causal Connection with accuracy
5. Objectivity and detachment
6. Measurement precision
1. Does not relate to real world
2. Data contamination subject interact
Compare and contrast the sampling procedures.
1. Random assignment- large number of participants (2 equal groups) are usually chosen from a defined population at the beginning of the study. The chosen sample will be used to determine information about the larger group. Outside factors are not taken into account.
2. Random selection- groups randomly chosen from entire population
Compare and contrast the sampling procedures.
Qualitative research relies on purposive selection of a small group of participants because they can provide information about the setting or research problem.
1. Comprehensive- all cases included in study
2. Maximum variation- subjects have greatest difference in specific characteristics
3. Extreme case- select cases representing extreme characteristics
4. Typical case- selects average cases
5. Homogeneous- focuses on a subgroup for intensive study
6. Snowball- participants selected by nomination of another participant
7. Opportunistic- selecting cases when the opportunity arises
8. Convenience- select people who are available or volunteer or can be recruited easily (low credibility)
Compare and contrast the research design and or data collection.
1. Posttest only control group (CG)- 2 groups (control & exper.) randomly assigned, 2 different treatments and posttested (no pretest)
2. Pretest-posttest CG- at least 2 groups (random assigned), pretested, given different treatments, posttested
3. Solomon four-group- 2 control, 2experimental; 2 groups pretested, other 2 not, 1pretested group and 1 unpretested group get treatment. 4 groups postested (looks at effects of pretesting)
Compare and contrast the research design and or data collection.
1. Working design- preliminary plan to begin research which includes site selection, length of study, subjects, and possible variables
2. Working hypothesis (foreshadowed problem)- emergent hypothesis, questions and possible explanations are given instead and may be adjusted or deleted
3. Data collection (researcher role)- participant observer (interactive collection) or observant (noninteractive)
a. Observations- specimen records
b. Interviews- oral histories
c. Collection and review of documents
What are sine threats to design?
Threats to design
1. History- unanticipated events occur during exp. (affects independent variable)
2. Maturation- physical or mental changes that happen to subjects during exp.
Compare and contrast the instruments used.
Instrumentation is questionnaires, tests, and paper and pencil instruments (norm & criterion referenced tests).
Data is gathered based on observations, interviews, note taking, and artifacts
Compare and contrast reliability and validity issues.
Validity assess whether the test measures what it claims to measure.
1. Construct measures abstract ideas like personality or leadership ability.
2. Criterion-related – predictive and concurrent
a. predictive- test predicts future performance (SAT/college,
b. concurrent- two tests given in the same time frame that correlate
(excet vs. Texes, Texes vs. computerized texes)
3. Content- measures content (MCAT does not measure ability to be a lawyer
Compare and contrast reliability and validity issues.
External validity looks at comparability (did researchers use theories and design correctly so findings are understood) of findings not generalizability. Reader decides if translatability applies.
Compare and contrast reliability and validity issues.
1. Stability (test-retest)- consistent or stable scores over a period of time
2. Split-half- measures internal consistency divide test in two halves, compute the scores of both halves for correlation
3. Parallel forms- measures equivalence of 2 or more test forms (A&B or pre & post)
4. Kuder Richardson- used for right/wrong test answers (multiple-choice)
5. Cronbach alpha- Likert scoring (01234)
Compare and contrast reliability and validity issues.
Reliability in qualitative research is difficult because of the natural setting. Researchers see qualitative internal reliability as the consistency between what occurs in the study and the data results.
1. Interrater- consistency of interviews given by two or more interviewers
2. Intrarater- one interviewer gives the same interview each time
3. Trustworthiness- non-biased, accurate and thorough research
4. Triangulation is a form of cross-validation that compares information to determine if the data supports itself.
3. Transferability- results can be used in other situations and contexts
Compare and contrast data analysis.
Includes a description of the quantitative methods used to collect primarily numerical data; data analysis based on numerical and statistical analysis
1. Descriptive- summary of a collection of data in a clear understandable way
2. Inferential- draws inferences about a population from a sample
a. T tests- determines if the means of 2 data groups are different from one another
b. Analysis of variance (ANOVA)- tests if the means of 3 or more data groups are different
c. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)- adjustments made to dependent variable based on correlation between dep. var. and another var.
d. Test of significance- results occur by chance a % of time
Compare and contrast data analysis.
Includes a description of the qualitative methods used to collect primarily descriptive data; data analysis is based on interpreting nonnumeric, verbal data
1. Coding- organizing, reducing and analyzing data
2. Categorizing- group results into categories to make the data more manageable. Using too few blurs results (unable to draw conclusions); too many fails to reduce data
What 3 ethical concerns in research?
. Ethical responsibility to your participants (researchers must not put the need to carry out the study above the responsibility to maintain the well-being of the participants)
2. Legal restriction on access to student records (written permission from parent, of age student or legal guardian)
3. Gaining cooperation and permission from school personnel (write cover letter explaining details of study and how it will be beneficial to the school)
What is the National Research Act of 1974?
The National Research Act of 1974
All proposed research activities (university level) be reviewed and approved by an authorized group like the Institutional Review Board (IRB).
What did the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 do?
The Family Education Rights & Privacy Act of 1974 (Buckley Amendment)
What is gaining entry?
Approval is needed from the school district, the principal, teachers and participants (parental consent).Researcher must complete forms describing the nature of the research, the specific request being made of the site personnel and the benefits to the site.
What are the characteristics of mixed methods?
1. Integrates qualitative and quantitative methods
2. Research question determines methods take
Discuss 3 types of mixed methods designs.
1. QUAL-Quan- Qualitative data collected first and weighted heavier than quantitative
Exploratory Study Characteristics
Phase 1 of study
a. Open-ended interviews
b. Observations
c. potential hypothesis identified
Phase 2 of study
d. Variables derived from qualitative analysis
e. Hypotheses tested with quantitative techniques
Discuss 3 types of mixed methods designs.
2. QUAN- Qual- Quantitative data collected first and weighted heavier than qualitative
Explanatory Study Characteristics
Phase 1 of Study
a. Hypothesis
b. Quantitative data collection
c. Analysis
Phase 2 of Study
d. Qualitative data collection
e. Analysis
f. Interpretation
Discuss 3 types of mixed methods designs.
3. QUAN-QUAL- Both are equally weighted and collected at the same time (hardest to do)
** Requires ability to conduct both methods
Triangulation occurs in all mixed method studies because one set of data corroborates another.
What is IRB?
IRB-(Institutional Review Board)-Before any research involving human beings can be conducted at a university or other institution that receives federal funds, the research must be approved by an institutional review board at the institution. The IRB at a particular institution is charged with weighing the risk involved for subjects, determining whether informed consent has been planned for and whether plans have been made to debrief the participants. The Department of Health and Human Services is the federal agency that has the major responsibility for establishing the guidelines for research studies that involve human subjects.
Identify and compare various designs including experimental, research.
Experimental Quantitative
Identify and compare various designs including survey, research.
Survey--Survey Quantitative Administer a survey or questionnaire to a small group of people (called the sample) in order to identify trends in attitudes, opinions, behaviors, or characteristics of a large group (called the population)
Identify and compare various designs including correlational, research.
Correlational Quantitative Investigators measure the degree of association between two or more variables.
Identify and compare various designs including ethnographic research.
Ethnographic Qualitative Exploring the shared culture of a group of people. Analyzing, interpreting a cultural group’s shared patterns of behavior, beliefs, and language that develop over time.
Identify and compare various designs including narriative, research.
Narrative Qualitative Exploring individual stories to describe the lives of people.
What is mixed method research?
Mixed Methods Combined Combining quantitative and qualitative data to best understand and explain a research problem. You have to decide on the emphasis you will give to each form of data, which you will collect first, and how you will ‘mix’ the data.
What is action research?
Action Combined Using both types of data for individuals to study education problems that they face in their settings. Systematic procedures.
Explain Mixed method
Mixed method design is a study combining quantitative and qualitative methods. Triangulation is the cross-checking of data using multiple data sources or multiple data-collection procedures. Triangulation mixed method design is a study in which quantitative and qualitative data are collected simultaneously and used to validate and clarify findings. When a conclusion is supported by data collected from a number of different instruments, its validity is thereby enhanced; this is referred to as triangulation. The three types of mixed method designs include: triangulation design, explanatory design and exploratory design. Triangulation improves the quality of the data that are collected and the accuracy of the researcher's interpretations. Triangulation can work in any subject, in any setting, and at any level.
List the threats to Internal validity
1. History--unanticipated events occur while experiment
2. maturation--natural growth of subjects
3. Pre-testing
4. Instrumentation--inconsistencies
5. Statistical regression -extreme scorers average out in time
6. Differential selection of subjects (when not randomly assigned or selected)
7. Experimental mortality
8. Selection--maturation--maturation is inconsistent between groups because of some selection factor.
List threats to external validity
1. Interaction effect of testing-pre-testing interacts with treatment to change results
2. Interaction effects of selection biases and treatment--a selection factor of intact groups interacts with treatment to produce results tht woudl not have occured if the groups had been randomly formed
3. Reactive effects of experimental-subjects knowing they are bing studied
4. Multiple treatment interference-when subjects receive 2 or more treatments, final rsults cannot be separated out and credited to a specific treatment,