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88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
declarative purpose statement?
single stmt;
why, what, where, who
(eg: the purpose of the study is to determine the extent to which different providers result in differences in pt compliance w/plan of care)
purpose stmt as question
(eg: what is the relationship b/w provider type ARNP/MD and pt compliance w/the plan of care?)
hypothesis is?
formulation of the research ? into a declarative stmt of prediction
types of hypotheses?
directional vs nondirectional
simple vs complex
null (statistical) vs research
what is another name for null hypothesis?
what is an independent variable?
observed, introduced, or manipulated to determine effect on another variable; may be experimented, tx, intervention, or predictor

X or predictor variable

controlled & manipulated
what is a dependent variable?
criterion/outcome variable
observed for change after tx;
variable under investigation;
what is measured after exposure to ind var
what is the book def of dependent variable?
a variable that is observed for change or to assess the possible effect of tx/manipulation

Y or criterion
what is an extraneous variable?
confounding variable
not under investigation
should be controlled
what is a topic?
area of interest
what is a research problem?
something that can be investigated by collecting and analyzing data
what is a problem stmt?
outlines all relevant variables @ beginning; identifies significant problems
what is an operational def?
explanation of how variables in the study are to be measured (focused/specific)
what is the book def of operational def?
exp of concepts in variables, in terms of how they are defined for a particular study
purpose of a lit review?
to discover what is already known about the problem, what has been done, and what needs to be done
what are primary sources?
written by the original author
what are 2nd sources?
written by someone other than the original author
what are sources of lit?
journals, databases, indexes, abstracts
lit review should include?
critical citation of previous studies; current/classic citations; supporting/opposing lit; appropriate subheadings;
primary sources
brief summary
what is nursing research?
scientific inquiry
knowledge development
what does research focus on?
nursing areas of practice, education, and administration
what is the book def of nursing research?
a systematic process of investigating problems to gain knowledge about improving the care that nurses give to pt
what is the goal of research?
control phenomena
what is scientific inquiry?
process in which observable, verifiable data are systematically collected from our surroundings through our senses to describe/explain/predict events
what are the concepts of the nursing paradigm?
what is a positivist?
empirical research
"no control" over events
one reality
what is a naturalist?
seen differently
multiple realities
mentally constructed
what is empirical data?
documented evidence (data) gathered through direct observation rather than a researcher's subjective belief
what is qualitative research?
generates knowledge using methods of inquiry that emphasize subjectively and the meaning of the experience of the individual
what is triangulation?
use of quanititive/qualitative methods to collect data about a particular phenomenon
what is basic research?
expanding knowledge
what is applied research?
solving problems
what are ways of knowing?
tradition, authority, common sense, trial and error, inspiration, intuition, scientific inquiry
what is the book def of ways of knowing?
an ass't of methods used to acquire new knowledge
steps in the research process?
Nuremberg code?
protection of subjects from harm/risk
*right to withdraw from participation
*IC for participation
Declaration of Helsinki?
*potential benefits, risks
*ASSENT (guardian permission)
Belmont report?
*respect of human dignity
-diminished autonomy
*Beneficience (do no harm)
*Justice: = presention/distribution of benefits
ANA standards of research
*freedom from injury
*privacy and dignity
*anonymity and confidentiality
how long must anonymity be held for?
5 years
book def of anonymity?
a condition where the ID of the subject remains unknown, even to the researcher, to protect subjects participating in the study
protecting data by not disclosing information that is gathered or learned from patients w/o their consent
Vulnerable groups?
mentally/emotionally disabled
key elements of IC?
simple language
voluntary participation
no coercion
freedom to w/draw whenever
IRB purpose is to ensure
ethical behavior of research
well-designed study
protection of subjects
what are some types of IRB?
what does a full IRB look like?
entire committee
*scientific community
what is an expedited IRB?
IRB chair + one other member
what is cross sectional study?
involves comparison of >=2 groups @ one time
*does not require f/u
what is descriptive research?
non experimental
*provide knowledge base when little is known
*used to describe variable rather than test a predicted relationship
what is experimental research?
study which the researcher manipulates and controls one or more variables
*observes effect in another variable
non-experimental research?
descriptive study
*does not exhibit a strong degree of control over variables
prospective research?
a study that examines data collected in the present
retrospective research?
a study that examined data collected in the past
secondary analysis
reanalysis of data collected previously to create a new research project
scholarly literature?
can refer to research-based publications and conceptual or theoretical literature
empirical lit?
data-based lit that presents reports of completed research
(AKA scientific research)
nursing science?
body of knowledge that is unique to nursing
research consumer?
readers of nursing research whose objective is applying findings to nursing practice or using the findings to conduct further research
research team?
a group that collaborates to conduct a research project, from determining the initial research question through communicating the results
striving for excellence in research, which involves discipline, scrupulous adherence to detail and strict accuracy
scientific inquiry?
process of analyzing data critically that has been gathered systematically about a particular phenomenon
scientific method?
*select/define problem
*formulate question/hypothesis
*collect data
*analyze data
*report results
ways of knowing
an asst of methods used to acquire new knowledge
human rights?
protection of subjects
*right to freedom from inquiry
*right to privacy/dignity
*right to anonymity/confident
what is Ho?
null hypothesis
what is H1/Ha
research hypothesis
what is ontology?
what is the nature of the knowable (reality)
what is epistemology?
what is the relationship b/w the knower and the known
what is axiology?
what is the role of value in the relationship b/w knower and known
what is methodology?
how should the knower obtain knowledge (data)
positivist vs naturalist ontology?
Positivist: monistic, driven by natural causes
Naturalist: multiple reality; subjective
positivist vs naturalist epistemology?
P: independent; must not influence findings
N: active participant
positivist vs naturalist axiology?
P: values/bias in check; objectivity
N: subjective; values desired
positivist vs naturalist methodology?
P: deductive; discrete variables; fixed design; quantitative; generalizations
N: inductive, holistic, flexible design; narrative patterns
when does research actually prove something?
research provides support for a hypothesis
what happens w/repeated studies?
we can place high degree of confidence in our findings when those findings are consistent across time/conditions
the purpose of this study is to determine the effect of pain on quality of life in female breast cancer survivors is an example of what?
declarative statement
for purposes of this study, pain is defined as "whatever the experiencing person says it is" is an example of what?
operational definition
what is the effect of pain on quality of life in female breast cancer survivors is an example of what?
research question
a directional, simple hypothesis is?
makes a specific prediction about the relationship b/w 2 variables (eg pain will ><)
non-directional, simple hypothesis is?
does not stipulate in advance the direction and nature of the relationship b/w 2 variables (eg pain will change...)
what is a directional hypothesis?
makes a specific prediction about the relationship b/w 2 variables
what is a simple hypothesis?
1 dep & 2+ independent variables
what is a complex hypothesis?
>=2 dep & >=2 indpendent variables
what is an alternative hypothesis?
can be directional or nondirectional
cancer pts who have both pain and fatigue will report less QOL and benfit-finding than cancer pts who do not have pain and fatigue.
What is the IV, DV, simple or complex, directional/nondirectional?
IV: pain, fatigue
DV: QOL benefit
simple vs complex? complex
direct/nondirect: directional
Solid foam mattress overlays are more effective than convoluted foam overlays in preventing pressure sores in elderly pts.
IV, DV, simple vs complex, direction/nondirect
IV: type of mattress
DV: pressure sores
simple vs complex: simple
directional/nondirect: direct