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136 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-Any research class is fun
-Any particular research class is enormously fun

which is right?
any research class is fun
-An assignment was given by the instructor.
-The instructor gave an assignment

which is right?
the instructor gave an assignment
what are the rules of writing?
-Do not write in third person
-write in active tense
-eliminate unnecessary words
-eliminate phrases when a word will do
-The researchers administered the survey
-We administered the survey

which is right?
we adminstered the survey
-The plucky student
-The student with lots of pluck

which is right?
the plucky student
Which edition of the APA handbook style should you use?
the fifth edition
The lit review is sometime titled...
history, background
Start searching you topic _____ then get _____
broad, narrow

inverted pyramid
avoid a ______ approach
list-like
try to _____ findings and discover ____ and ____ in the field you are researching
integrate
key areas
major arguments
Elements of an article: methodology
subjects
procedures
variables
subjects
description and sampling
procedures
including instruments
variables
detailed descriptions
sometimes there are additional methodolgy such as
hypotheses
research design
statistical methods
results are presented in...
narrative or graphic form
results are ____, but not _____ on
presented
commented
discussions and conclusions are sometimes all ____ section, but can be ____
one
separate
-talks about findings
-what they mean
-addresses limitations
-integrates findings back into the larger body of literature
discussions
-sums up study
-the implications & importance to social work practice & research
-suggests directions for future research.
conclusions
-allows readers to track your thinking
-to provide checks on your
theoretical framework and ethics.
-allows the reader to locate articles that they find interesting.
-reverse searching
references
how to narrow your search
Date ranges
Language
Format (books vs. journals vs. monographs…)
Title words
where to find data
“reverse searching”
PsychInfo
Sociofile
Social Work abstracts
Social Services Infonet
ERIC
searching hints
stick with recent studies
look for review articles
if not in full-text go to library
be wary of biased opinions
revising/refining your topic
-dont be afraid to if too broad/narrow
-may be way too much or not enough out there
-may find aspect of topic interesting
no web standards ensure ____
accuracy
reasons people create web pages
Personal .com ~.edu
Advocacy .org, often to persuade, sell opinion/viewpoint
Commercial/marketing .com
Informational .edu/.gov
It is a social institution, and a way to produce knowledge
It is organized according to social theories
based on evidence, or empirically observed experiences (i.e.: from the five senses).
The data of science may be qualitative or quantitative.
What is Science?
-provides answers seemingly based on science, but lacking in actual rigor.
-It distorts real science by offering official-sounding answers, often supplied by businesses, interest groups, and even some churches.
-lacks quality control and findings often are not able to be replicated.
-It promises unique cures and solutions.
psuedoscience
applies knowledge over a broad range of cases or locations
universalism
questions the methods used, the data uncovered, and the findings reported.
organized skeptism
strives for objectivity in all areas
disinterestedness
researchers belong to one or more communities of scholars
communalism
researchers insist on adherence to strict rules of evidence and interpretation
honesty
-They distribute scientific knowledge in a timely fashion.
-follow strict standards for submission.
journals
-They require pre-publication review by peers to maintain organized skepticism.
-They account for prior research and literature.
-do not pay their authors; the prestige of publishing is the reward they offer.
journals
Selecting a topic
Reviewing the literature
Focusing the question
Designing a study
Collecting data
Analyzing and interpreting findings
Informing others of your findings
steps in research process
steps in research process
Selecting a topic
Reviewing the literature
Focusing the question
Designing a study
Collecting data
Analyzing and interpreting findings
Informing others of your findings
-It constructs social reality subjectively.
-It focuses on interactive processes and events
-depends on authenticity
qualatative
-It involves the researcher intimately in the study being conducted
-It recognizes & responds to preexisting scientific values
qualatative
-used to analyze inductively themes that repeat in the data.
qualatative
-It focuses on studying a small number of special cases.
qualatative
-recognizes the value of experience in specific situations.
qualatative
-measures ‘facts’ objectively.
-It focuses on variables.
quanatative
-It removes the researcher from the study by remaining detached
-It remains free of preexisting values
quanatative
-analyzes numbers using inferential statistics
--depends on reliability
quanatative
-It studies many cases and subjects
quanatative
-stays independent of the context and setting
quanatative
Three Basic Types of Research
exploratory
descriptive
explanatory
social work research is done via case studies and learning the names of variables.
exploratory
social work research is done via surveys and learning how variables are distributed.
descriptive
social work research is done via experiments and learning how variables can be described
explantory
-Become familiar with the setting.
-Create a general mental picture of the setting.
goals of exploratory
-Determine the feasibility of the hypotheses.
-Decide what to measure within the setting.
goals of exploratory
-Formulate and focus questions about the setting.
-Generate one or more hypotheses.
goals of exploratory
-Provide a detailed, accurate picture.
-Locate new data.
goals of descriptive
-Document causal processes.
-Report background and context.
goals of descriptive
-Create a set of categories.
-Clarify the sequence of steps.
goals of descriptive
-Test a theory’s predictions.
-Elaborate or enrich the theory.
goals of explantory
-Determine which explanations work best.
-Support or refute an explanation.
goals of explanatory
-Extend the theory to new issues.
-Link the causes with general principles.
goals of explanatory
research is detached, scientific, and academically oriented
basic
research is activist, pragmatic, and reform oriented
applied
-While it is ordinarily intrinsically satisfying to the investigator, judgments are made by other professional researchers.
-Problems and subjects are selected with less outside interference.
basic research
-The goal is to contribute to basic or theoretical knowledge.
-Success comes via publication in scholarly journals.
basic research
-The research is judged by absolute standards.
-Internal logic and rigor are the key to this research.
basic research
-It is largely university-based.
-It’s goal is knowledge-building.
-It normally involves theory testing.
-It prefers experiments.
-It often requires long-term studies.
basic research features
-Research is part of a job and is judged by sponsors or outsiders.
-problems and subjects studied are narrowly constrained.
applied research
-The goal is to develop practical payoffs or results.
-Success is defined by
results that can used by the sponsors and others
applied research
-The research standards depend on the results.
-Generalizing results for sponsors is key to applied research.
applied research
types of applied research
action research
social impact studies
evaluation research
empowerment research
action research
change a situation
social impact studies
to inform policy
evaluation research
to assess results
empowerment research
to stregnthen and give voice to less fortuanate
time dimension in research
cross sectional
longitudinal
time series
cohort
panel
research is like a snapshot; gathering data at one point in time
cross sectional
research analogous to a movie or video; investigations gather data at multiple points in time.
longitudinal
are multiple studies of different samples over some period of time (e.g.: opinion surveys).
time series
research involves multiple studies of different samples of similar categories or groups (e.g.: students entering college this year).
cohort
research involves multiple studies of the same sample over an extended period of time.
panel
Quantitative Data are Obtained Through
experiements
surveys
content analysis
existing statistics
explanatory research involving group comparisons
experiments
descriptive research asks many people numerous questions
surveys
assessment of written, pictorial or symbolic material (text
content analysis
using previously collected information to examine old or create new findings.
existing statistics
Qualitative Data are Obtained Through
field research
historical comparative analysis
Phenomenological investigation
Feminist and Postmodern studies
case studies of specific settings or contexts
field research
examining aspects of social life in a past historical era or across different cultures today.
Historical comparative analysis
examining how people socially construct their lives.
Phenomenological investigation
examining critically how scare resources are distributed and justified in terms of traditional Western thought.
Feminist and Postmodern studies
technology ups and downs
speed of communication
the ability to easily store and compute
rapid searches for information available via the Internet are very helpful.

technology causes decreased intimacy
rewards impersonal communicatio
searches tend to be shallow and avoid in-depth analysis.
system of interconnected abstractions or ideas that condense and organize knowledge about the social world.
thoery
should be parsimonious (simple), internally consistent, and have clear criteria for their refutation.
theory
how theory ideology similar
-contain basic assumptions.
-explain matters social work, and how and/or why it changes.
-offer a system of concepts.
-tell what circumstance causes what outcome.
-provide an interconnected system of ideas.
how theory and ideology different
-Ideologies are absolute while theories are conditional.
-Ideologies have all the answers, but theories are incomplete.
-Ideologies are fixed, closed, and finished; theories are growing, open, and able to expand.
-Ideologies avoid tests while theories welcome tests.
avoid tests, fixed, closed, and finished, have all the answers, are absolute, ignore opposing evidence, moral beliefs, highly partial, inconsisten
ideologies
conditional, incomplete, growing, open, and able to expand, welcom tests, change because of opposing evidence, detached from personal beliefs, neutrel, seek congruity
theory
ideas expressed as symbols or in words having two parts: a word or a term and a definition of that word or term.
concepts
vary from concrete to abstract
concepts
cluster together, forming a web of meaning for a theory,
concepts
form classifications, helping to organize complex relationships
concepts
two or more concepts are combined.
typology or taxonomy
sees theories as soft mental images involving values and beliefs while facts are hard, settled and observable.
empiricist view
the idea that the powerful influence of our thoughts often dictates what we observe as facts. We only know the world through our consciousness, and it is colored by our language and subcultures.
relativist view
direction\
level of relaity
formal or substantive
form of explanation
framework of assumption
how theories can be catergorized
reasoning can be either deductive or inductive
direction
whether it is micro, meso, or macro
level of reality
whether it is either a paradigm or a theoretical system
framework of assumptions
The cause precedes the effect in time.
There is an empirical relationship or pattern.
Rival explanations have been ruled out, and no longer apply.
three levels of casulaity
used to foster understanding by discovering the meaning of an event of practice by placing it within a social context.
Interpretive –
used with functional and pattern theories a researcher applies a set of interconnected assumptions and concepts. Functional theorists use structural explanation to account for an event by locating it within a larger, ongoing, balanced social system
structural
psychodynamic-funcitonal
behaviorist-cognitive
crisis intervention-task centered
systems-ecological
humanists
social justice
major theories in social work
states that occasional disruptions require pragmatic action.
crisis interevention-task centered
observe stimulus and response reactions and conditioning
behaviorist-cognitive
regards personality development and insights through conflicts.
psychodynamic- functional
systems interact within bounded entities involving feedback and adaptation.
system-ecological
theories state that individuals can transcend, grow, and move toward meaning.
humanist
-Any research class is fun
-Any particular research class is enormously fun

which is right?
any research class is fun
-An assignment was given by the instructor.
-The instructor gave an assignment

which is right?
the instructor gave an assignment
what are the rules of writing?
-Do not write in third person
-write in active tense
-eliminate unnecessary words
-eliminate phrases when a word will do
-The researchers administered the survey
-We administered the survey

which is right?
we adminstered the survey
-The plucky student
-The student with lots of pluck

which is right?
the plucky student
Which edition of the APA handbook style should you use?
the fifth edition
The lit review is sometime titled...
history, background
Start searching you topic _____ then get _____
broad, narrow

inverted pyramid
avoid a ______ approach
list-like
try to _____ findings and discover ____ and ____ in the field you are researching
integrate
key areas
major arguments
Elements of an article: methodology
subjects
procedures
variables
subjects
description and sampling
procedures
including instruments
variables
detailed descriptions
a category of theories involving the control of scarce resources, and how that controls favors dominant groups, forcing disempowered groups to seek to gain hegemony by radical action.
social justice thoery
how we look and think about a topic, background assumptions, open to revision by new data, ways to connect a single study to a broad class of explanations
theory
involves the often visible manifestations that are not choice driven, such as gender, race, and age.
primary diversity
describes the less visible manifestations that are more likely choice driven, such as ideology, and education.
secondary diversity