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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is GnRH produced by and what does it produce?

Produces gonadotropin, LH and FSH
What produces hCG?
made by trophoblast of placenta after conception
Which subunit alpha or beta is unique and the same for LH, FSH, CG?
alpha - same

Beta - unique
Which of the following share a receptor:



LH and CG
After menopause, which form of estrogen stops being produced?

Which is predominant before and after menopause?

What in woman make estrogen (2)

In circulation, most estrogen are bound by...
17-beta-estradiol (estradiol)

17-beta-estradiol (estradiol), then estrone

Ovaries and adipose

alpha-globulin (SHBP) (sex hormone binding protein)
What converts androgen to estrogen?
Estrogen effects the growth and development of: 6

this is in cooperation with what?
Breast tissue, vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, long bones and (closure of epiphyses), sex patterns of hair growth

What enzyme converts androgen to estrogen?

progesterone to estrogen?

Where is this found?

NaDPH reductase

The ER of Granulosa, theca cells (ovarian), adipose tissue, brain, placental syncytiotrophblasts, blastocyst and bone
Estrogen and glucocorticoids have what type of receptors?
Nuclear receptors
Progestins have what type of activity in the CNS?

What development in the breast

Changes in the endometrium, post-ovulation?

alveolobular development

Secretory changes in the endometrium
What is the effect of progesterone on LH?

What part of the ovaries make estrogen?
suppresses LH

granulosa cells
Growth of cells are stimulated by .... and stimulate production of .... which is what type of feedback?

What is the stimulus for release of GnRH, and what suppress this?


positive feedback

pulse generator, estrogen
When does estrogen exert a negative feedback?

What does progesterone inhibit and when this falls off what happens?

Corpus lueduem is developed by what hormone and what stimulates the production of progestin (progesterone)
before and after the surge of FSH and LH

LH and bleeding starts

Once LH falls off, what continues to stimulate the production of progesterone and what receptor does this use?
hCG, if conception happens placenta will produce hCG

hCG binds to LH Rc and progesterone is continued to increase.
Estrogen stimulates the growth of .... and progestin causes this to become more of a ......

LH causes what to rupture?

secretory layer

Primary amenorrhea is ...

defects include 4 things and which is the most common?
failure to start menses

1. Hypothalamic: no GnRH (rare)
2. Pituitary: no LH or FSH (rare)
3. Ovarian: do not respond to LH or FSH; no sex hormones synthesized (most common)
4. Uterine: (rare)
Secondary amenorrhea is ...

defects include 5 things and which is most common?
periods cease after being normal (not menopause)

1. Check for pregnancy
2. Hypothalamic-pituitary: (most common), not making GnRH or gonadotropin
3. Pituitary: post-partum necrosis, lose gonadotropins after delivery
4. Ovarain: no estrogen produced
5. Athlete's amenorrhea: diet, leanness, exertion, stress (stop menstrating because not enough fat storage)
Polycystic ovaries is...
1. defect in what enzyme?

2. what happens to follicles?

3. What increases in circulation?

4. How is this treated? (2)

Will also see what?
1. No ovulation, LH surge, however, no estrogen (deficiency in 21-hydroxylase)

2. FSH to fully prepare follicles so ovary becomes hard

3. increased circulating androgens (mild hirsuitism)

4. Suppress hyperandrogenism with continuously giving GnRH to suppress gonadotropin or treat with spironolactone which is a progestine

hyperinsulinemia, because androgen cause increase of insulin
what are pre-menstrual syndromes?
cramps, bloating, moods.
Perimenopause occurs...

what becomes irregular (2)

2 symptoms are?
years before and 1 year after last menstrual period

estrogens and gonadotropins

heavy bleeding which can cause anemia and vaomoter symptoms (hot flashes)
Cremaster in males is used to...
raise and lower the testies to maintain temperature, because sperm has optimal temperature.

If cold goes in and hot they drop.
Where does the sperm mature and where is it stored?
It matures in the epidiymus and some storage occurs here.

Maturity finishes in Vas deferens and this is the main storage area
FSH is used to...

FSH acts on what and this stimulates what 2 things

LH is used to...

LH acts on what and stimulates what which does what 3 things?
1. mature sperm and follicles

Acts on Seminiferous tubules and then the Sertoli cells.

This stimulates spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis and ABP synthesis

2. make sex hormones

stimulates Leyding cells which stimulates testosterone secretion.

This has effects on CNS, stimulation of bone and muscle growth, and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics.
Androgen binding protein does what?
gets testosterone and brings it back to Sertoli cells
What hormone gives growth to male genitalia?

What hormone is to blame for male patterned baldness?

spermiogenesis: spermatids mature to ...., where is this within?
spermatozoa, seminiferous tubules
What binds with acromsoma vesicles to form acromsome?

What does the acrosome contain with in it?

What is there a lot of around the microtubles?

What does the acrosome aquire to make it tougher and more potent?

protoyltic enzyme


What does the prostate do for sperm?
1. Alkalizes semen to about 7.5, because vagina is acidic.

2. Provides Ca and phosphorous

3. Provides fibrinolysis which breaks clots to allow sperm to get to egg
Seminal vesicles provide what to sperm?
nutrients and viscosity

- fructose = energy
-prostaglandins = stmulate fallopin tubules to contract to help carry egg and sperm along
-citric acid = buffering agent and used as some energy
Sperm must penetrate the layer of granulosa cells known as...

It also must get through...

This is where acrosome releases... by binding to a receptor on .... and then does what....

Then what occurs..
corona radiata

zona pellucida

proteinases, ZP, and then disassembles,

Membranes of sperm and ovum fuse and ovum releases granules that prevent the binding of additional sperm.
Where is estrogen produced and how? (in males)

Estrogen deficiency does what? (unopposed androgen) (5)
Testis and tissues containing aromatase

1. hypergonadotropism (larger sex organs)
2. macroorchidism (larger testicles)
3.changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (more muscle mass and bone)
4. will be more aggressive
5. limbs will usually get larger than usual because estrogen not closing plates