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29 Cards in this Set

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erection=neurovascular process. it requires autonomic nervous system, neurotransmitters (epinephrine and acetylcholine), endothelial relaxing factors, and vascular smooth muscles of arteries and veins supplying penile tissue.
erection controlled by ANS but can be inhibited or stimulated by CNS
parasympathetic stimulation causes smooth muscle of penis: arterioles relax, veins contract
corpora cavernosa lengthens and widens = erection
ejaculation mediated by SNS: causes frequent strong contractions of vas deferens, epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate, urethra, and penis
erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction: inability to achieve and maintaine an erection sufficient to permit satisfactory sexual intercourse. affects over 50% of men over 50
BPH (benign prostatic hypertrophy):
age related, non-malignant enlargement of prostate gland. characterized by formation of large, discrete lesions around the urethra (periurethral regions)
prostate cancer affects peripheral zones
risk factors for BPH:
age, family history, race, ethnicity, dietary fat and meat consumption, hormonal factors.
Symptoms of BPH:
weak urinary stream, postvoid dribbling, frequency of urination, nocturia (urinatio at night)
diagnosis of BPH
digital rectal exam, urine flow studies, PSA (prostate-specific antigen) may be done to screen for cancer
tx of BPH:
self care, meds, surgery
Prostate cancer: most common non-skin cancer in US. second to lung cancer as cause of death in cancer related death in men
african american men have highest incidence and asians and native americans have to lowest incedence. increased incidence with age. etiology unknown
prostate cancer risk factors:
family history, race, age, dietary fat and meat consumption, hormonal factors
protective factors against prostata CA:
dietary substances (lycopene, selenium, vitamin E), chemoprevention using 5 apha reductase inhibitor, finasteride, reduced risk in men without BPH
type of CA: adenocarcinoma (resembling glandular tissue)CA's. metastasis to lung and bone
prostate cancer usually asymptomatic. symptoms suggest locally advanced or metastic disease. Ex) lower back pain, fractures indicative of bone metastasis, weight loss, anemia, SOB
change in PSA level over time may be prostate cancer
male vs. female infertility
male: 25-35% infertility
female: ~50% infertility
unexplained: ~15-25% infertility
sperm disorders:
azoospermia=no sperm in ejaculate
oligospermia=abnormally low numbers of sperm in ejaculate
male infertility:
immunologic disorder-antibodies attack own sperm, hormonal disorder, genetics, structural and congential abnormalities
obstruction-prostate enlargement, testicular torsion (twisting of testicle and veins, cuts off blood flow, necrosis of tissue)
cryptorchidism:
undescended testicle(in abdominal cavity) (often occurs in premature babies)if not corrected, sperm too hot in abdminal cavity = infertility
hypospadias:
withdrawl opening has not reached end of penis. it can be repaired by surgery.
varicocele: swollen veins, increased risk of infertility
cervial cancer: higher mortality in african american women
causal link between HPV infection and cervical cancer; risk factors-early age at intercourse, multiple partners, promiscuous male partner, smoking, std history
cancer arrives from precursos lesions, beginning with development of atypcal cells-gradually progresses to carcinoma in situ (localized to epithelial layer) and to invasive cancer of the cervix (deeper)
pap smear-changes in cells' nucleus and cytoplasm, and variation in cell size and shape (dysplasia) detected via histology
cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN): abnormal growth detected by grading system which describes changes in cancer precursore
endometriosis: condition in which functional endometrial tissue is found in ectopic sites outside uterus like (ovaries, rectum, bladder, posterior broad ligaments, pelvis, vagina)
cause unknown; theories: retrograde menstruation;dormant, immature cellular elements undergo metaplasia in distant sites; metastasis via lymphatics or vasculature
endometriosis: increasing incidence in western societies over past 40-50 years
risk factors:early menarche; regular periods with shorter cycles(<27 days), longer duration (>7 days), heavier flow, increased menstruation pain, first degree relatives
symptoms of endometriosis:
dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, infertility

diagnosis: laproscopy
leiomymomas (fibroids): benign neoplasms of smooth muscle origin. most common cause of pelvic tumor. more frequent in african than caucasian women. 50% asymptomatic-discovered on routine pelvic exam. other symptoms: menorrhagia (extreme menstrual bleeding), anemia, urinary frequency, rectal pressure, and constipation
PID (pelvic inflammatory disease): inflammation of the uper reproductive tract and may involve: uterus (endometriosis), fallopian tubes (salpingitis), and ovaries (ooporitis)-it is usually caused by an infection
PID-age 16-24, unmarried, nulliparity (never having carried a pregnancy), multiple sex partners, previous history of PID
symptoms: lower abdomen pain, purulent cervical discharge, adnexal (accessory organ) tenderness, painful cervix, + sx of infection-fever, increased WBC count
tx:antibiotics
dysfunctional menstrual cycles: related to alterations in hormones that support normal cyclical endometrial changes
amenorrhea-lack of menstruation
primary amenorrhea-no menstruation by age of 16
secondary amenorrhea- no sex characteristics being seen by 14 and no menstruation either
dysmenorrhea-painful menstruation
PMS -premenstrual syndrome
female infertility factors: anatomical abnormality (vaginal and uterine aplasia, cervical stenosis, tumors, asherman's syndrome-intrauterine adhesions), genetic abnormality (turner's syndrome-missing or incomplete X chromosome, short, missing reproductive tract, infertile), hypothalamic dysfunction (anorexia nervosa, excessive exercise, stress, tumors, malnutrition), pituitary dysfunction (tumor, head tauma, psychomimetics, hyperprolactinemia, pituitary infarction-shock, sickle cell disease, diabetes mellitus), ovarian failure (autoimmune disorders, chemotherapy), other (std's, polycystic ovary syndrome, obesity, hyper/hypothyroidism, cushing's syndrome-excessive glucocorticoids (androgens), autoimmune disorders, chemotherapy
in vitro fertilization:
ovaries super-stimulated-produce multiple follicles, monitor follicle development, induce LH surge, aspirate follicles, find ova, inseminate in vitro, if fertilized eggs returned to uterus
intracytoplasmic sperm injection

harvest egg and sperm
cloning:
ganete-->nucleus removed--->enucleated ovum-->nucleus from another body cell inserted--->clonal zygote-->clonal embryo
clones are not exactly the same...mitochondrial DNA left out