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33 Cards in this Set

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VENOUS Drainage
Left ovary/testis --> LEFT gonadal vein --> LEFT renal vein --> IVC

Right ovary/testes --> RIGHT gonadal vein --> IVC
Lymphatic Drainage
Ovaries/testes --> para-aortic lymph nodes
Ligaments of the Uterus
1) Suspensory Ligament of Ovaries
=contains the ovarian vessels

2) Transverse Cervical (Cardinal) Ligament
=contains the uterine vessels

3) Round Ligament of the Uterus
=contains NO impt. structures

4) Broad Ligament
=contains the round ligaments of the uterus + ovaries and the uterine tubules + vessels
Erection
**Mediated by the PARASYMPATHETIC nervous system

(=think: "point and shoot!")
Emission
**Mediated by the Sympathetic NS
Ejaculation
**Mediated by VISCERAL and SOMATIC nerves
Derivation of Sperm Parts
**Acrosome
=derived from the GOLGI apparatus and the FLAGELLUM (=tail) from one of the centrioles
Which piece contains the mitochondria?
MIDDLE piece (=neck)
What is the sperm food supply?
FRUCTOSE
Sperm Development
**Spermatogenesis begins at puberty w/ SPERMATOGONIA (=type A and B)

**Full development takes about 2 months
Where does spermatogenesis occur?
Seminiferous tubules
What is the Blood-Testis Barrier?
**physical barrier in the testis between the tissues responsible for spermatogenesis and the bloodstream --> i.e. to AVOID IMMUNE RESPONSE
Androgens
=Testosterone, DHT, androstenedione

**Potency:
=DHT > testosterone > androstenedione

**Testosterone is converted to DHT by 5-alpha-reductase
=enzyme INHIBITED by finasteride
Source of Androgens:
**DHT and testosterone --> testis

**Androstenedione --> adrenal
Targets:
Skin, prostate, seminal vesicles, epididymis, liver, muscle, brain
Functions:
1) Differentiation of Wolffian Duct System --> internal gonadal structures

2) Secondary sex characteristics and growth spurt during puberty

3) Required for normal spermatogenesis

4) Anabolic Effects:
=inc. muscle size
=inc. RBC production

5) Increased Libido
Source of Estrogen:
**Ovary (=estradiol)

**Placenta (=estriol)

**Blood (=aromatization)

**Potency:
=estradiol > estrone > estriol
What happens in pregnancy?
**50x increase in estradiol and estrone

**1000x increase in estriol
=indicator of fetal well being
Functions:
1) Growth of follicle

2) Endometrial proliferation, myometrial excitability

3) Development of genitalia

4) Stromal development of breast

5) Female fat distribution

6) Hepatic synthesis of transport proteins
Continued...
7) Feedback inhibition of FSH

8) LH surge
=estrogen feedback on LH secretion switches to POSITIVE from negative just before the LH surge

9) Increased myometrial excitability

10) INCREASED HDL, DECREASED LDL
Progesterone Source:
**Corpus luteum, placenta, adrenal cortex, testes

**Elevation of progesterone is indicative of OVULATION

=i.e. Progesterone Prepares for Pregnancy
Function:
1) Stimulation of endometrial glandular secretions + spiral artery development

2) Maintenance of pregnancy

3) DECREASED myometrial excitability

4) Production of thick cervical mucus--> inhibits sperm entry into the uterus

5) Increases body temperature

6) Inhibition of gonadotropins (LH, FSH)

7) Uterine SM relaxation
Mentstrual Cycle:
**Follicular growth is FASTEST during the 2nd week of the proliferative phase.

**Estrogen stimulates endometrial proliferation.

**Progesterone maintains the endometrium to support implantation.

DECREASED PROGESTERONE --> DECREASED FERTILITY
Ovulation
**Estrogen surge the day before ovulation
=stimulates LH and inhibits FSH
=LH surge causes OVULATION --> i.e. rupture of follicle

**Increased temperature (=progesterone induced)

**Ferning of cervical mucosa
Mittelschmerz
=blood from ruptured follicle causes peritoneal irritation that can mimic APPENDICITIS
What would oral contraceptives prevent?
**Prevent the estrogen surge --> and thus the LH surge --> OVULATION DOES NOT OCCUR
Meiosis and Ovulation
**Primary oocytes begin Meiosis I during FETAL LIFE and complete Meiosis I just prior to ovulation
=i.e. Meiosis I is arrested in prOphase for years until Ovulation!

**Meiosis II is arrested in METaphase until fertilization
=i.e. when an egg MET a sperm!
hCG Source:
**Syncytiotrophoblast of the placecnta
Functions:
1) Maintains the corpus luteum for the 1st trimester by acting like LH
=in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters, the placenta synthesizes its own estrogen + progesterone and the corpus luteum degenerates

2) Used to DETECT PREGNANCY
=appears in the urine 8 days after successful fertilization
=i.e. blood and urine tests available
What can elevated hCG in women signal?
**Hydatiform moles

**Choriocarcinoma
Menopause
**Cessation of estrogen production w/ age-linked decline in number of ovarian follicles

**Average age of onset is 51 years (=EARLIER in smokers)
Hormonal Changes in Menopause:
=DECREASED estrogen
=REALLY increased FSH
=Increased LH (=no surge)
=Increased GnRH
Symptoms of Menopause:
**Menopause causes HAVOC!

=Hot flashes
=Atrophy of the Vagina
=Osteoporosis
=Coronary artery disease