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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
WHat are the 5 organs of the female reproductive system?
1) Ovaries
2) Oviducts
3) Uterus
4) Vagina
5) Mammary glands
What are the 4 histological layers of the ovary?
1) Germinal epithelium
2) Tunica albuginea
3) Cortical region
4) Medullar region
Where is the female germinal epithelium and what does it do?
It is the outermost layer of the ovary (either simple squamous or cuboidal).
It is the source of follicles.
Where is the female tunica albuginea and what does it look like?
It is just below the germinal epithelium in the ovary and it is predominantly collagen with regular connective tissue. It's relatively large, and doesn't have any follicles.
Where is the cortex of the ovary and what is it made of?
Ovarian cortex extends from just below the tunica albuginea to the ovarian medulla. The developing stages of the follicle are all located here, as well as the corpus luteum.
What is the medulla of the ovary and what is it made of?
The middle section of the ovary. It is made of lots of blood vessels.
What are the 2 cellular components of the ovarian follicles?
1) Oocytes
2) Follicular or granulosa cells
What is the embryological origin of oogonia?
The cells of the yolk sac.
What is the developmental stage following oogonia?
Primary oocytes. Many of these undergo atresia and are arrested at prophase of 1st meiotic division.
What signal will induce continuation of the 1st meiotic division?
LH surge will cause 1st meiotic division to complete just before ovulation.
When does the 2nd meiotic division occur?
Immediately following ovulation.
In which phase is the 2nd meiotic division arrested?
When will the 2nd meiotic division resume?
Following fertilization.
Where does completion of the 2nd meiotic division occur?
Outside the ovaries.
Where do follicular cells come from?
Germinal epithelium.
What is aneuploidy and in what stage of development does it usually occur?
Nondisjunction of the chromosomes, mostly in meiosis I.
What are the 4 stages of development in ovarian follicles?
1) Primordial follicles
2) Primary follicles
3) Secondary follicles
4) Mature/Graafian follicles
What is the distinguishing feature of the primordial follicle?
One layer of simple squamous epithelial cells.
What 4 things happen in the transition to primary follicles?
1) *Follicular cells develop cuboidal epithelium that can span up to 4 layers (landmark).
2) Zona pellucida develops
3) Stromal cells develop into theca cells/follicles.
4) Oocyte nuclei enlarge.
What major landmark develops in the secondary follicle?
What is found in the antrum?
Estrogen, progesterone, steroid hormone binding proteins, glycosaminoglycans.
What added layers do secondary follicles develop?
Theca interna (vascularized estrogen producers).
Theca extrena (connective tissue).
What is the cumulus oophorous?
It is a stalk that attaches the mature follicle to the granulosa layer.
What events occur during follicular atresia?
Granulosa cells die and detach from the basal lamina. Primary oocytes die, but the interstitial glands (theca interna) continue to produce estrogen.
What induces ovulation?
LH surge.
What is the mechanism of ovulation (not well understood)?
Proteases (collagenase) involved to detach ovum and rupture the ovary wall.
When in the menstrual cycle does ovulation occur?
14 days before menses.
What structure begins to develop during and after ovulation?
Corpus luteum.
What is the function of the corpus luteum?
Prouduce progesterone and estrogen.
What happens to granulosa cells as the corpus luteum develops?
They become granulosa lutein cells that produce progesterone, but can't convert it further (aromatase is present).
What happens with theca interna cells in the corpus luteum?
They produce the estrogen precursor, androstenedione, and some testosterone. No aromatase is present.
What happens to the corpus luteum at the end of the luteal phase?
High levels of progesterone now produce negative feedback and inhibit GnRH, therefore suppressing LH release. This results in corpus luteum degeneration by day 14.
What happens to the corpus luteum during pregnancy?
Placenta produces hCG (similar to LH), saving the corpus luteum for the next 6 months. Progesterone is continually produced.
What does relaxin do?
Softens the symphysis pubis in preparation for birth.
What is the corpus albicans?
The degeneration of the corpus luteum that is now scar tissue.
*What is the 2 cell-2 gonadotropin model?
Theca cells have no aromatase, but they produce testosterone --> androstenedione. Granulosa cells have aromatase, so they can convert androstenedione into estrogen. Both are secreted into the blood stream. This explains why granulosa cells and theca cells must be in close proximity.
How would you recognize a primordial follicle?
One primary oocyte with one layer of squamous epithelial cells.
How would you recognize a primary follicle?
1-4 layers of cuboidal epithelium, zona pellucida develops.
How would you recognize a secondary follicle?
Presence of an antrum.
How would you recognize a mature/Graafian follicle?
*Cumulus oophorous - structure that binds the oocyte to the inner edge.
Corona radiata.
What hormone is responsible for stimulating follicular development?
Why does FSH peak before LH?
Because FSH develops the follicles first, and then LH develops the corpus luteum from the granulosa lutein cells to nurture the mature follicle.
What is the stigma?
The point of rupture in a releasing oocyte.
What hormone regulates the growth of corpus luteum?
What hormone are granulosa lutein responsible for producing?
What hormone are theca interna cells responsible for producing?
Estrogen precursors.