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28 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What hormone converts granulosa and theca cells into lutein cells (corpus luteum)?
LH
What 2 hormones are abundantly produced by the corpus luteum?
Progesterone and estradiol.
FSH causes an increase of which type of hormone receptor in the follicular phase?
LH
The cells of the corpus luteum have an increased capacity to synthesize which conversion product?
Pregnenolone (from cholesterol), the rate limiting step governed by LH.
The cells of the corpus luteum have a limited capacity to synthesize which conversion product?
Androstenedione (Cholesterol --> Pregnenolone --> Progesterone --> Androstenedione). Progesterone will get backed up.
What hormone will "save" the corpus luteum from luteolysis?
Human chorionic gonadotropin produced by a fertilized embryo.
What hormone dominates the proliferative phase of the endometrium?
Estradiol.
What phase of the menstrual cycle coincides with proliferation of the endometrium?
Follicular phase.
Describe 3 changes in the endometrium during the proliferative phase.
1) Stromal and endothelial layers thicken.
2) Spiral arteries form.
3) Receptors for progesterone and estrogen are upregulated.
What hormone dominates the secretory phase of the endometrium?
Progesterone.
What phase of the menstrual cycle coincides with the secretory phase of the endometrium?
Luteal phase.
What do endometrial glands secrete during the secretory phase?
Carbohydrate-rich mucous.
What happens to hormone levels during the menstrual phase?
FSH begins a slow rise as progesterone declines and estrogen levels are low.
In the late follicular/ovulation phase, what changes in the cervical mucus occur due to increased estrogen?
Becomes less viscous and more watery to allow promote survival and transport of sperm.
What hormone dominates during the second half of the follicular phase?
Estradiol.
What hormone dominates the vagina during the luteal phase?
Progesterone.
What hormone does the dominant follicle produce?
Estradiol.
During menopause, decreased sensitivity to what two hormones occurs in the follicle?
FSH and LH.
What is the dominant estrogen in menopausal women?
Estrone - E1.
For menopausal women, a loss of estradiol and inhibin causes ________.
a huge increase in FSH and LH due to a loss of negative feedback from estradiol
Name 5 consequences of menopause.
1) Osteoporosis
2) Cardiovascular disease - atherosclerosis.
3) Decreased breast mass
4) Hot flashes
5) Thinning of vaginal epithelium
What is primary amenorrhea?
Absence of menses caused by Turner's syndrome, Testicular feminization, hormonal disorders in any endocrine organ.
What is secondary amenorrhea?
Cessation of menstruation for more than 6 months usually caused by pregnancy, lactation, and menopause. Hyper-prolactinemia (pituitary tumor, hypothalamic disorders) will inhibit GnRH pulses and decrease LH and FSH.
What is oligomenorrhea?
Infrequent periods with cycles greater than 35 days. Usually caused by abnormal GnRH release from hypothalamus due to stress, illness, intense excercise, or extreme weight loss.
What is dysmenorrhea?
Painful menses related to uterine contractions.
How do you treat dysmenorrhea?
Prostaglandin inhibitors, oral contraceptives.
What is hirsutism?
Excessive hair growth in females cuased by excessive adrenal androgen production - adrenal hyperplasia or Cushing's syndrome.
What is virilization?
Hirsutism plus clitoral hypertrophy, deepening voice, temporal balding, male pattern muscle development caused by excessive androgen production.