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53 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Are gonadal structures in males and females similar up until week 7?
YES
Which ducts will form the major structures of male anatomy?
Wolffian (Mesonephric) Ducts
Which ducts will form the major structures of female anatomy?
Mullerian (Paramesonephric) Ducts
What are the 4 hormones that make up the male cascade needed for development?
1. Testis Determining Factor (TDF)

2. Mullerian inhibiting factor

3. Testosterone

4. Dihydrotestosterone
Where (in the gene code) is testis determining factor located?
Y chromosome
What is the function of testosterone in male gonadal development?
Masculinize the internal duct work
What is the function of dihydrotestosterone in male gonadal development?
Masculinize external genitalia
In terms of continuity, what is seen in the male duct system?
Forms CONTINUOUS duct system (transit for sperm to exit)
The unfused ends of the mullerian ducts in females form what?
Fallopian Tubes
The fused ends of the mullerian ducts in females form what?
Uterus
Mesonephric ducts induce what in both sexes?
Kidney Formation and forms ureter
Both the kidney and ureters in both sexes are derived from what?
Intermediate Mesoderm
What happens to the mesonephric ducts in females?
Goes away
What big event happens in gonadal development in week 5?
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) migrate through the dorsal mesentery from yolk sac to genital ridge
What ultimately happens to the yolk sac?
Ultimately is incorporated into the gut tube
The PGC migration prompts the development of what?
Primitive Sex Chords
PGC induce the development of what type of cells in the gonad?
Supporting Cells
What hormone dictates whether PGC's take on a male or female fate?
Testis Determining Factor (TDF)

In not present --> female
TDF induces support to express what protein?
SRY protein
What do male support cells become?
Sertoli cells
What happens to female cells with no Y chromosome?
Germ cells start gemtogenesis

Become arrested at Prophase I of meiosis
Oocytes arrested at Prophase I induce the formation of what cells?
Follicular cells (granulosa cells)
Sertoli cells do what?
support sperm cell production
Does gametogenesis occur immediately in males?
No sertoli cells inhibit (big difference between males and females)
What males cells produce testosterone?
Leydig cells
What cells produce estrogen in females?
Theca cells
What cell type produces anti-mullerian hormone in males?
Sertoli cells
Where are both male and female supporting cells derived from?
Epithelium
Where are both leydig/theca cells derived from?
Mesodermal stromal cells
In males, where are the sex chords located>
In the medulla of the testis
In females, where are the sex cords located?
In the cortex of the ovary
The location of the sex cords in males allows for what?
For formation of the continuous duct system
What effect does testosterone have on the parameonephric duct?
Makes it degenerate
IN females, the absence of testosterone has what effect on the mesonephric duct?
It degenerates
What happens to the parmesonephric ducts in females?
They partially fuse
At birth, what type of oocytes do the ovaries contain?
Just primary oocytes arrested in prophase of M1
Where do the PM ducts fuse and what do the form?
Inferiorly

Form Uterus, cervix, upper vagina
The unfused parts of the PM ducts form what?
Uterine (fallopian) tubes
Where is the lower vagina derived from?
Endoderm of urogenetial sinus
The fusion of the PM ducts brings together what and forms what?
Brings together peritoneal fold

Forms broad ligament and creates 2 peritoneal compartments
At birth, what type of oocytes do the ovaries contain?
Just primary oocytes arrested in prophase of M1
Where do the PM ducts fuse and what do the form?
Inferiorly

Form Uterus, cervix, upper vagina
The unfused parts of the PM ducts form what?
Uterine (fallopian) tubes
Where is the lower vagina derived from?
Endoderm of urogenetial sinus
The fusion of the PM ducts brings together what and forms what?
Brings together peritoneal fold

Forms broad ligament and creates 2 peritoneal compartments
How is the uterine cavity created?
Resorption after PM duct fusion
What is the gubernaculum?
Fibrous cord that induces gonads to descend

note: only successful in males
What is the broad ligament?
The peritoneal covering of the uterus, uterine tubes, and ovaries
What is the space called that is posterior to the uterus and anterior to the rectum?
Pouch of Douglas
What is the most common uterine defect that is seen?
Uterus Bicorning - 2 uteruses forming
The glans area will become what?
Erectile tissue - glans of clitoris
Urogenetal folds form what in females?
Do not fuse and form Labium Minus
What does the genital swelling form?
Labia Majorus