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46 Cards in this Set

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what part of the fertilized egg secretes the hormone, __________ that is tested in pregnancy tests? how soon can a woman test positive?
blastocyst (6-8 cells) secrete hCG; can be detected within 8 days of conception
after the blastocyst, what part of the fertilized egg secretes hCG?
in what part of the female reproductive tract does fertilization occur?
ampulla of the fallopian tube
when do the 2 parts of meiosis occur?
1st meiosis occurs at ovulation releasing a secondary oocyte with loss of polar body. the second meiosis occurs at fertilization with loss of the second polar body and creation of a female pronucleus. (the granulosa cells had secreted an inhibitory substance blocking meiosis until fertilization occurs)
it takes ____ number of days to go from zygote (blastocyst) to implant in the uterus. what hormones do what to faciliate the passage?
3-5 days; rising progesterone (P4) relaxes the fallopian tube isthmus to allow passage.
In regard to the growth/development of a zygote, what happens at Day 0?
Fertilization by sperm initiating embryogenesis
In regard to the growth/development of a fetus, what happens within week 1?
implantation (as a blastocyst)
In regard to the growth/development of a fetus, what happens within week 2?
bilaminar disk (epiblast:hypoblast)
In regard to the growth/development of a fetus, what happens within week 3?
GASTRULATION;primitive streak, notochord, and neural plate begin to form
In regard to the growth/development of a fetus, what happens within weeks 3-8?
neural tube is formed. ORGANOGENESIS (extremely susceptible to teratogens)
In regard to the growth/development of a fetus, what happens within week 4?
heart begins to beat: 4 chambers in week 4; upper and lower limb buds begin to form
In regard to the growth/development of a fetus, what happens within week 8?
fetal movement; fetus looks like a baby
In regard to the growth/development of a fetus, what happens within week 10?
genitalia have male/female characteristics
name the order of of development from a fertilized ovum to a fetus.
haploid egg and sperm make a diploid zygote -> morula -> blastocyst -> embryo -> fetus
what are the functions of hCG?
comes from the syncytiotrophoblasts; maintain the corpus luteum beyond normal lifespan; stimulates progesterone and E2; stimulates essential DHEA-S in fetal zone of adrenal gland; hCG receptors in the endometrium and myometrium can inhibit contractions produced by oxytocin; immunosuppressant
name the cells that develop over the implanting blastocyst that release proteolytic enzymes that digest the endometrium and ad in implantation; also gives rise to placenta?
Trophoblast cells
when does the placenta start functioning?
starts functioning about 16 days beyond fertilization (7 days after implantation)
explain the double Bohr effect.
hemoglobin can carry more oxygen at a low PCO2 than at a high PCO2.
how does oxygen get to the fetus and what is special about fetal hemoglobin?
O2 diffuses by simple diffusion driven by oxygen pressure gradient of about 20mmHg; fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen
progesterone is responsible for what in terms of pregnancy and respiration?
progesterone (P4) causes the mother to increase respirations to blow off the CO2 that the fetus is now creating
what is DHEA and what is its purpose in the fetus?
it is the precusor for androgens and estrogens ; in the fetus' adrenal glands DHEA is produced and when it gets to the placenta is converted to estriol (the estrogen of pregnancy)
what are the functions of the placenta?
1) supplies nutrients; 2) acts as the fetal lung; 3) acts as fetal kidney (regulates fluid volumes and diposing of waste metabolites); 4) endocrine gland that secretes many steroids and protein hormones that affect both materal and fetal metabolism
what are the functions of progesterone produced by the placenta?
1) establishes support for the fetus; 2) maintains the lining of the uterus; 3) the fetal adrenal glands convert it to aldosterone and cortisol; 4) it inhibits the uterus from contracting; inhibits prostaglandin production and decreases sensitivity to oxytocin
where is estradiol produced and when?what is its function?
in the first 5-6wks hCG stimulates the corpus luteum to produce estradiol(along with progesterone); after that time, the placenta produces it from converting DHEA; ESTRADIOL'S FUNCTIONS: increase uterine blood flow
in what way can you measure the estrogen of pregnancy and what does it indicate?
measuring estriol is a good indicator of fetal well-being (along with alpha fetal protein, low estriol are associated with Down's syndrome; chr 22)
what are the roles of estrogen in pregnancy?
1) continuous growth of uterine myometrium; 2) along with progesterone, it stimulates ductal breast growth; 3) along with relaxin, it relaxes and softens maternal pelvic ligaments and symphysis pubis of pelvic bones to allow for the expansion of the uterus; 4) sitmulates LDL cholesterol uptake and activity of P450 enzymes that contribute to progesterone synthesis
what happens to the mother's Cardiac output?
blood flow to placenta requires a 40% higher cardiac output
what happens to the mother's volume?
blood volume increases by 30% (due to aldosterone and estrogen); this causes Na+ and H20 retention
what happens to the mother's kidney function?
increases GFR by 40% and RPF by 75%
what happens to the mother's insulin secretion during pregnancy?
insulin secretion increases after 3 month of pregnancy
at what time during gestation, does morning sickness usually occur?
onset 4-8 weeks of gestation; improvement before 14-16 weeks (usually good indicator of favorable outcome; the smooth muscle of the stomach relaxes)
what is the term for pregnancy induced hypertension?
preeclampsia(associated with significant protein in urine); increased BP in 3rd trimester, reduced blood volume, no renal vasodilation, specific renal lesions (high mortality and morbidity)
what is the difference between preeclampsia and eclampsia?
eclampsia usually occurs after preeclampsia and is characterized by convulsions that appear before, during, or after labor.
what are the functions of amniotic fluid and how much is there?
FUNCTIONS: 1) mechanical buffer (protection) 2)fetal toilet (turns over daily); there is approximately 500-1000mL in which the fetus floats
what is and what are the phases of parturition?
parturition is the act of giving birth; Phase 0: conception to beginning labor, quiescent uterus (decreased cAMP, cGMP, MLCK activity due to progesterone, relaxin, prostacyclin, PTH-related peptide, NO) Phase 1: time of uterine activation to delivery of fetus; Phase 2: delivery of fetus to delivery of placenta; Phase 3: Postpartum; involution of the uterus
Phase 0 is the time of conception to beginning labor. The uterus is quisecent because...?
decreased cAMP, cGMP, MLCK activity due to progesterone, relaxin, prostacyclin, PTH-related peptide, NO
Phase 1 is activation of the uterus to delivery of the fetus. what is responsible?
upregulation of contraction-associated proteins like connexin 43; this increases gap junctions; there is a 50x increase in myometrial oxytocin receptors; there is dilation and effacement of the cervix, cervical softening due to rearrangement of collagen fibers, glycosaminoglycans
What causes phase 2 to occur?
from the time of delivery of fetus to delivery of placenta involves platelet activating factor, endothelin, and Angiotensin II
Phase 3 needs what to cause the uterus to involute?
oxytocin is most important in postpartum bleeding and involution of the uterus
name the term used to describe the irritability of uterine muscle that causes weak, slow contractions that begin about 1 month before labor.
Braxton-Hicks Contractions
what causes labor pains?
early: ischemia of the uterine muscle then the stretch of the cervix, perineum and vagina
Name the prostaglandin responsible for labor induction.
endogenously: oxytocin; synthetic: pitocin
what is the difference in inducing and augmenting labor?
inducing is sitmulating labor with or without ruptured membranes; augmenting labor is stimulating contractions following spontaneous rupture of the membranes (the cervix is dilating correctly of fast enough)
In what phase would pitocin be most beneficial?
pitocin is most important in phase 3, most women receive it following labor to prevent bleeding
what hormone causes milk letdown? what does the 1st milk contain?
oxytocin; also by drop in estrogen and progesterone after delivery; colostrum (full of carbs, proteins, and antibodies and contains no fat)
what hormone causes milk secretion? why would it stop being produced?
prolactin; if the baby stops feeding then the milk will dry up