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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are some of the functions of the respiratory system?
Gas exchange between air and blood

Moving air from exchange surface of lungs

Protection of respiratory surfaces

Produce sound

Provision or olfactory sensations
What are the functional differences between the upper and lower respiratory systems?
Upper: conduction, condition, sound, olfaction, protection

Lower: conduction, exchange, circulation, protection
How do the muscles of the neck and pharynx affect the larynx?
What occurs when swallowing?
Position and stabilize larynx

Elevate larynx, bend epiglottis over glottis
Each long is covered by one __?
What is it? Whare its two types? What is it filled with? Why?
Serous membrane lining pleural cavity
Parietal: attaches to walls of pleural cavity
Visceral: surface of lungs
Pleural fluid: lubricates space between pleura
What is pulmonary ventilation?
External respiration?
Internal respiration?
The physcial movement of air into and out of the lungs

Gas diffusion (O2 and CO2 transport to and from RBCs)
Gas diffusion (O2 to tissues, CO2 from tissues and then to RBCs)
Describe the law that dictates the movement of air and how it relates to pulmonary ventilation.

Define compliance.
Boyle's law: pressure and volume inverse relatinoship, volume depends on movement of diaphragm and ribs
Pressure and airflow to lungs

Indication of expandability of the lungs
Describe the mechanism of pulmonary ventilation and pressure changes that occur.
As the rib cage is elevated or the diaphragm is depressed, volume of thoracic cavity increases. Pressure within the thoracic cavity decreases, and air flows into the lungs. When the rib cage returns to original position, volume of thoracic cavity decreases. Pressure rises, and air moves out of lungs.
Difference between quiet and forced breathing? Names?
Eupnea: diaphragm, external/internal intercostals mucles

Hyperpnea: accessory muscles
What does Dalton's law state?
Individual gases in mixture exert pressure proportional to their abundance
What does Henry's law state?
The amount of gas in solution is directly proportional to their partial pressure
Why is gas exchange across the respiratory membrane so efficient?
Differences in partial pressure, small diffusion distance, lipid-soluble gases, large SA of all alveoli, coordination of blood and airflow
How is oxygen mainly tranposrted? What is this dependent on?
Bound to hemoglobin on RBCs
O2 Pressure, pH, temp, BPG
Difference between fetal and adult hemoglobin?
Fetal has higher O2 affinity
Under what conditions does O2 bind hemoglobin most effectively?
High O2 concentrations (high pressure of O2)
What is the effect of temperature on hemoglobin binding O2?
Higher temp-->less binding
In what form is most of CO2 carried as? Via what system is this achieved?

What form of CO2 is present when bound to hemoglobin?
Carbonic Acid

How is gas absorption/generation balanced?

Describe mechanisms of local regulation of gas transport and alveolar function
Capillary rates of delivery/removal

Lung perfusion: alveolar capillaries constrict in low O2

Alveolar ventilation: bronchioles dilate in high CO2
What brain centers are involved in repiratory control? Describe their roles.
Medullary: rhythmicity centers set pace

Pons: apneustic and pneumotaxic centers
What kinds of reflexes modify respiratory centers?
Chemoreceptor reflexes (levels of CO2)

Baroreceptor reflexes

Hering-Breuer Reflexes (prevents overinflation)

Protective reflexes
What is regulation of respiratory rate dependent on in terms of voluntary control?
Conscious/unconscious thought
Emotional state