Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What occurs in the PCT?
Active reabsorption of NA+, with accessory reabsorption of water.
NO ADH needed
What are the fuctions of the juxtaglomerular cells?
Controls RBF, GFR, and renin secretion.
Sites of referred pain from the ureters
umbilicus (from upper portion) and the vulva/penis (from lower portion)
What portion of the CNS controls the bladder and the internal sphincter?
parasympathetic nerves
What proportion of RBF is filtered?
20% (remaining 80% flows to the peritubular capillaries)
What creates renal autoregulation?
a myogenic mechanism (contraction/relaxation of arterioles) and tubuloglomerular feedback (from macula densa and JG cells)
What lowers the RBF and the GFR?
*vasoconstriction* from:
exercise, change/position, severe hypoxia, hemorrhage...anything that lowers systemic arterial pressure.
Renin-Angiotensin System
H2O loss =
renin--angiotensin I--(through lung aid) Angiotensin II
Angiotensin II = secretion/aldosterone from adrenals, and ADH from post. pituitary.
What is the function of the Loop of Henle?
determines concentration of urine by creating a concentration gradient through the counter-current mechanism.
What is the function of the DCT?
Reabsorption of H2O with ADH.
""of NA+ with aldosterone.
secretion of K+, H+
*Final concentration of urine is in collecting duct*
What is normal filtration rate?
180 L/day; 120 mL/min
99% of filtrate reabsorbed.
What is the basic function of diuretics?
Increase urine flow by inhibiting Na+reabsorption--promotes greater H2O excretion.
What is plasma creatinine concentration?
Amount filtered is normally amount excreted. If GFR goes down, Pct goes up proportionately.
norm value = 0.7-1.2 mg/dL
What is BUN?
blood urea nitrogen.
BUN goes up proportionately as GFR goes down.
norm value = 10-20 mg/dL
What are age-related changes in renal function?
< RBF and GFR
< nephrons
change in tubular transport
porlonged response to acid/base loads
drug elimination delayed
What is often the only presenting symptom of renal cell carcinoma?
What is a distinguishing characteristic of bladder tumors?
gross hematuria
What is lithotripsy?
the use of ultrasonic waves to break up kidney stones.
What is the distinguishing characteristic of acute pyelonephritis?
WBC cast
(a urine culture with antibody coated bacteria is also present)
What are two S/S that help distinguish chronic pyelonephritis from the acute kind?
HTN and an abnormally small kidney
What is urethral syndrome?
inflammation of microscopic urethral glands
What is interstitial cystitis?
Inflammation of bladder--may be autoimmune in origin
What is acute glomerulonephritis?
usually post-streptococcal infection. (7-10 days)
What is rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis? (RPGN)
involves rapid renal decline
one type: Goodpasture syndrome
What is IgA nephropathy?
a type of glomerulonephritis
usually 24-48 hrs. after URI or GI infection
antibodies clog glomerulus--gross hematuria
What is a sign of chronic glomerulonephritis?
massive proteinuria--3-5g/day, mostly albumin
What is often the first S/S of nephrotic syndrome?
edema--due to protein loss
What is the main focus of treatment in acute renal failure?
manage S/S in order to allow kidneys to resume function.
What are examples of:
pre-renal failure
intra-renal failure
post-renal failure
*hypovolemia due to trauma
*nephrotic syndrome, ATN
*bladder tumor, blocked ureter(s)--usually bilateral
What is ATN?
acute tubular necrosis
usually associated with surgery, but also with sepsis, obstetric complications, or severe burns

key= hypovolemia and hypotension
What are treatment methods for CRF?
dietray considerations, manage I/O, manage anemia
What is epispadias?
location of urethral meatus on the ventral side of penis
What are some sytemic effects of uremia (i.e. CRF)?
bone demineralization
pulmonary edema + Kussmaul resp.
HTN, pericarditis
encephalopathy, stupor, twitching
N/V, anorexia
pruritis (itching), sex dysfunction