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49 Cards in this Set

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The filtration barrier of the glomerulus capsule has how many layers?
3 layers
Name the three layers of the filtration barrier.
Fenestrated Endothelium
Basement Membrane
Podocyte Processes
Capillary endothelial cells with pores of about 100nm.
Fenestrated Endothelium
Glycoproteins and mucopolysaccharides make up this
Basement Membrane
Have primary and secondary foot processes
Podocytes
Spaces between interdigitation foot processes. about 250 angstroms in width.
Filtration Slits
Bridges filtration slit
Filtration slit membrane
In molecular sieving what size molecules and pass through and what size molecules can not pass through?
15 A can
35-40 can not
Phagocytic cells that contain myofilaments and lay down the mesangial matrix for support of the glomerular tuft.
Mesangial cells
Tubule composed of a single layer of epithelial cells resting on a basement membrane. Divided into segments.
Renal Tubule
Part of the renal tubule. Consist of two parts: proximal convoluted tubule and the pars recta.
Proximal Tubule
Part of the Proximal tubule closest to the glomerulus.
Proximal convoluted tubule
Straight part of the proximal tubule that connects to the loop of henle.
Pars recta
Made up of a ascending and decending limb.
Loop of Henele
This limb of the Loop of Henele penetrates into or toward the medulla.
Descending Limb
This limb of the Loop of Henele returns back to the cortex.
Ascending Limb
List the functions of the Mesangial cells.
1) Phagocytic
2) Contractility of Filtration Barrier
3) Stability
Part of the renal tubule which passes between the afferent and efferent arterioles of the glomerulus of origin.
Macula Densa
What are the two parts of the distal tubule?
Distal Convoluted Tubule
Connecting Tubule
Carries urine from connection segment of nephron to a calyx of the renal pelvis
Collecting Duct
Continuous with the renal pelvis and carries urine to the urinary bladder.
Ureter
What are the parts of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
1) Juxtaglomerular cells
2) Macula Densa
3) Mesangial cells
Where is renin produced and stored?
In the juxtaglomerular cells
Derived from the division of the efferent arterioles. Intimately associated with the renal tubules.
Peritubular capilaries
Long, straight vessels that run parallel to and give rise to a capillary plexus that is intimately associated with the Loops of Henele.
Vasa Recta
Average value of GFR in a healthy individual .
120 ml/min
7.5 L/hr
180 L/day
The value for the filtration coefficient (k) of the Starling Equation.
15 ml/min/mmHg
The value for the capillary hydraulic pressure ( Pc) of the Starling Equation
45 mmHg
The value for the tissue oncotic pressure (Πt) of the Starling Equation.
0 mmHg
The value for the tissue hydraulic pressure (Pt) of the Starling Equation
10 mmHg
Value for the capillary oncotic pressure (Πc) of the Starling Equation.
27 mmHg
What are the three factors affecting renal blood flow?
Myogenic mechanism
Neural control
Tubuloglomerular feedback
Myogenic Mechanism is an exampl of what?
Autoregulation
In the myogenic mechanism when the pressure goes up what occurs?
smooth muscle of the arteriolar walls constrict causing and increase in resistance.
In neural control the sympathetic nervous system discharges what in response to pressure change?
Norepinephrine
The tubuloglomerular feedback is a _______________ mechanism.
Flow-dependant
The macula densa acts as what in the tubuloglomerular feedback system?
A sensory location
The tubuloglomerular feedback system does what?
Regulates the vascular resistance of afferent arteriole to change GFR.
GFR stands for what?
Glomerular Filtration Rate
The liver produces what plasma protein?
Angiotensinogen
Angiotensinogen is cleaved by what to AI?
Renin
Angiotensin I is cleaved by what to AII?
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE)
Angiotensin II can be further converted to what?
A III
Name the factors that affect renin release
1) low plasma sodium levels
2) reduced renal blood pressure
3) increased outflow from the renal sympathetic nerves.
The kidneys are innervated by what?
Sympathetic system ONLY
What are the four basic functions of a nephron?
1) Filtration
2) Reabsorption
3) Secretion
4) Excretion
Used to measure pressures, withdraw samples and infuse fluids of know composition in the kidneys.
Micropuncture
What are the two pathways of tubular reabsoption?
Transcellular
Paracellular
Name the five ways substances move across the membranes?
1)Simple Diffusion
2) Facilitated Diffusion
3) Cotransport
4) Countertransport
5) Primary Active Transport