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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
when is mannitol contraindicated?
anuria, CHF
clinical use of mannitol?
shock, drug overdose, decrease intracranial/intraocular pressure
how does mannitol work?
increases tubular fluid osmolarity, producing increased urine flow
mechanism of acetazolamide?
carbonic anhydrase inhibitor - causes self-limited NaHCO3 diuresis and reduction in total body HCO3- stores
where does acetazolamide act?
proximal convoluted tubule
toxicity of acetazolamide?
hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, neuropathy, NH3 toxicity, sulfa allergy
clinical use of acetazolamide?
glaucoma, urinary alkalinization, metabolic alkalosis, altitude sickness
mechanism of furosemide?
sulfonamide loop diuretic - inhibits NKCC of thick ascending limb; abolishes hypertonicity of medulla, preventing concentration of urine
what effect does furosemide have on calcium excretion?
increases it - Loops Lose calcium
clinical use of furosemide?
edematous states (CHF, cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, pulmonary edema), hypertension, hypercalcemia
toxicity of furosimide?
ototoxicity, hypokalemia, dehydration, allergy (sulfa), nephritis (interstitial), gout
drug for diuresis in patients allergic to sulfa drugs?
ethacrynic acid
diuretic that can be used in hyperuricemia, acute gout?
ethacrynic acid
mechanism of hydrochlorothiazide?
inhibits NaCl reabsorption in distal convoluted tubule, reducing diluting capacity of the nephron, decreases calcium excretion
clinical use of hydrochlorothiazide?
hypertension, CHF, idiopathic hypercalciuiria, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
diuretic used in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus?
toxicity of hydrochlorothiazide?
hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hyponatremia, hyperGlycemia, hyperLipidemia, hyperUricemia, and hyperCalcemia
also sulfa allergy
what are the potassium sparing diuretics?
Spironolactone, Triamterene, Amiloride, eplercone
the K+ STAys
mechanism of spironolactone?
competitive aldosterone receptor antagonist in cortical collecting tubule
how do triamterene and amiloride act?
cortical collecting tubule - block Na+ channels
clinical use of K+ sparing diuretics?
hyperaldosteronism, K+ depletion, CHF
toxicity of K+ sparing diuretics?
hyperkalemia, endocrine effects (e.g. spironolactone causes gynecomastia, antiandrogen effects)
diuretics causing acidosis?
carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, K+ sparing diuretics
diuretics causing alkalosis?
loop diuretics, thiazides
diuretic that increases urine calcium?
loop diuretics
diuretics that decrease urine calcium?
name 3 ACE inhibitors
captopril, enlapril, lisinopril
mechanism of Losartan?
AT II receptor antagonist - not ACE inhibitor and so doesn't cause cough
toxicity of ACE inhibitors?
cough, angioedema, proteinuria, taste changes, hypOtension, pregnancy problems (fetal renal damage), rash, increased renin, lower angiotensin II; hyperkalemia