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33 Cards in this Set

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This drug is an osmotic diuretic. It increases tubular fluid osmolarity leading to increased urine flow.
Mannitol.
This drug is absolutely contraindicated in anuria, and congestive heart failure.
Mannitol.
This drug can cause pulmonary edema and hydration?
Mannitol.

This drug acts in two ways:
1) Increases osmolarity of body
2) Increases urine flow.

Therefore this increases ADH , so contraindicated in pulmonary edema and CHF. Just exacerbates it!!!
This drug is used to treat drug overdose, and reduce intracranial and intraocular pressure.
Mannitol.
This drug induces hyperosmolarity and decreased blood volume.
Mannitol. This can stimulate ADH release.
This drug is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. It causes self limited NaHCO3 diuresis and decreases total body bicarbonate stores.
Acetazolamide.
What part of the kidney does acetazolamide work?
Proximal tubule.
What are the uses for acetazolamide?
1) altitude sickness
2) glaucoma
3) urinary alkalanization
4) metabolic alkalosis.
What are the side effects of acetazolamide?
Hyperchloremic met acidosis,

Sulfa allergy!!!

Ammonia toxicity, Neuropathy, Tinnitus.
How is acetazolamide effective in glaucoma?
Causes a reduction in the amount of bicarbonate secreted into the aqueous humor and decreases intraocular pressure.
What is furosemide?
Loop diuretic: sulfonamide!! If a patient is allergic to sulfas, dont give furosemide!!! Instead give ethacrynic acid!!
This drug inhibits the Na+/K+/2Cl0 cotransport system of the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle.
Loop diuretics: fuoresmide!
This drug causes free water clearance to be zero and prevents the concentration of the urine.
Fuoresmide.
What can furosemide be used to treat?
CHF, cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, pulmonary edema, HTN, hypercalcemia!
What are the side effects of furosemide??
OH DANG for furosemide
1) Ototoxicity
2) Hypokalemia
3) Dehydration
4) Sulfa allergy
5) Nephrotoxicity
6) Gout.
This drug is a phenoxyacetic derivative that blocks Na/K/2Cl transport.
Ethacrynic acid.

NOT a sulfonamide.
This drug is a thiazide diuretic. So it inhibits NaCl reabsorption in early distal tubule.
Hydrochlorothiazide.
This drug is used to treat HTN, CHF, idiopathic hypercalciuria
Hydrochlorothiazide
What are the side effects of hydrochlorothiazide?
Hyper GLUC

Hyperglycemia
Hyperlipidemia
Hyperuricemia
Hypercalcemia.

Also hypokalemia and hyponatremia. And metabolic alkalosis!!
This drug is K+ sparing diuretic.
Spironolactone

Triamterene

Amiloride

The K+ STAys.
What is MOA of spironolactone?
Competitive aldosterone receptor antagonist in cortical collecting tubule.

ACTS in COLLECTING TUBULE!!!
What is MOA of triamterene?
Blcoks Na+ channels in the cortical collecting tubules.
What is MOA of amiloride?
Blcoks Na+ channels in the cortical collecting tubule.
What are some toxicities of amiloride?
hyperkalemia
What are some side effects of triamterene?
hyperkalemia
What are some side effects of spironolactone?
hyperkalemia
Gynecomastia
Anti-androgen effects.

Can be used to treat the hirsutism of PCOS!!!
Which diuretics cause acidosis?
Acetazolamide

Spironolactone (retain K+, so pump K into cell and H+ out)
Which diuretics cause alkalosis?
loop diuretics
thiazides.
Which diuretics increase calcium in urine?
furosemide (loop diuretics).
What is the MOA of enalapril?
Inhibits ACE, decreasing angiotensin II and preventing inactivation of bradykinin, A POTENT VASODILATOR!!!!
What are ACE inhibitors used for?
HTN
CHF
diabetic renal disease
What are the toxicities of ACE inhibitors?
Cough

Angioedema

Proteinuria

Taste change
What is MOA of losartan?
Angiotensin II receptor antagonist. It does NOT cause cough.