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53 Cards in this Set

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ureter crosses anterior to the origin of what artery to enter the pelvis?
external iliac
ovoid, PAS-positive hyaline masses
Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodule - most specific lesion of diabetic glomerulosclerosis
nephrotic syndrome in IV drug user or HIV nephropathy
focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
renal pathology associated with DIC?
diffuse cortical necrosis
Potter's syndrome?
bilateral renal agenesis - oligohydraminos, limb & facial deformities,pulmonary hypoplasia
cause of Potter's syndrome?
malformation of ureteric bud
why do kidneys stay low in abdomen in horseshoe kidney?
get trapped under IMA
RBC casts in urine
glomerular inflammation (nephritic syndromes), ischemia, or malignant hypertension
WBC casts in urine
tubulointerstitial disease, acute pyelonephritis, glomerular disorders
granular casts in urine
acute tubular necrosis
waxy casts in urine
advanced renal disease/CRF
hyaline casts in urine
nonspecific
LM: glomeruli enlarged and hypercellular, neutrophils, lumpy-bumpy; EM: subepithelial humps; IF: granular pattern
acute postreptococcal glomerulonephritis
LM and IF: crescent moon shape
rapidly progressive (crescentic) glomerulonephritis
finding on immunofluorescence in Goodpasture's?
linear pattern
IF and EM findings in Berger's disease?
mesangial IgA deposits
split basement membrane
Alport's syndrome
mutation in Alport's? characteristic findings?
collagen IV; nerve deafness and ocular disorders
hematuria, hypertension, oliguria, azotemia
nephritic syndrome
findings in nephrotic syndrome
massive proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, peripheral and periorbital edema, hyperlipidemia
LM: diffuse capillary and BM thickening; IF: granular pattern; EM: spike and dome
membranous glomerulonephritis
findings in minimal change disease/lipoid nephrosis?
LM: normal glomeruli; EM: foot process effacement
LM: segmental sclerosis and hyalinosis
focal segmental glomerular sclerosis - most severe disease in HIV patients
findings in diabetic nephropathy
LM: Kimmelstiel-Wilson 'wire loop' lesions, basement membrane thickening
findings in membranous glomeruloneprhitis in SLE
wire-loop lesion with subendothelial deposits
most common type of kidney stones?
calciium oxalate, calcium phosphate, or both
second most common type of kidney stone; can form staghorn calculi that can be nidus for UTIs
ammonium magnesium phosphate (struvite)
infection with what type of organism leads to struvite kidney stones?
urease-positive bugs - proteus vlugaris, staph, klebsiella
kidney stones often seen as a result of diseases with increased cell turnover, such as leukemia and myeloproliferative disorders
uric acid
types of radiolucent kidney stones?
uric acid and cystine
gene association with renal cell carcinoma?
deletion of VHL gene on chromosome 3
where does renal cell carcinoma originate?
renal tubule cells (polygonal clear cells)
renal cell carcinoma is associated with what syndromes?
paraneoplastic (ectopic EPO, ACTH, PTHrP, and prolactin)
gene association with Wilm's tumor?
deletion of tumor suppressor WT1 on chromosome 11
WAGR complex?
Wilm's tumor, Aniridia, genitourinary malformation, and mental-motor retardation
most common tumor of the urinary tract system?
transitional cell carcinoma
transitional cell carcinoma is associated with what?
problems in your Pee SAC:
phenacetin, smoking, analine dyes, and cyclophosphamide
white cell casts in urine are pathognomonic for what?
acute pyelonephritis
chronic pyelonephritis?
coarse, asymmetric corticomedullary scarring; tubules can contain eosinophilic casts (thyroidization of the kidney)
most common cause of acute renal failure?
acute tubular necrosis
what is acute tubular necrosis associated with?
renal ischemia (e.g. shock), crush injury (myoglobinuria), toxins
when does death most often occur in ATN?
during initial oliguric stage
what is renal papillary necrosis associated with?
diabetes, acute pyelonephritis, chronic phenacitin use
what is uremia?
clinical syndrome marked by increased BUN and creatinine and associated symptoms
metabolic disturbance seen in renal failure?
metabolic acidosis due to decreased acid secretion and decreased HCO3- generation
low serum chloride concentration is secodary to what?
metabolic alkalosis
high serum chloride concentration is secondary to what?
non-anion gap acidosis
most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults?
membranous glomerulonephritis
how does renal cell carcinoma typically present?
as a mass or hematuria
loop diuretic indicated for the treatment of edema associated with CHF, cirrhosis, and renal disease?
furosemide
two principal causes of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis?
anti-glomerular basement membrane and primary systemic vasculitis
drugs implicated in the pathogenesis of acute interstitial nephritis?
NSAIDs, beta-lactam antibiotics (cepalothin & methicillin), sulfonamides, diuretics (furosemide and thiazides), phenytoin, cimetidine, methyldopa
EM: subendothelial humps, tram-track
membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis