Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

105 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
where are the kidneys located
retroperitoneally on posterior abdominal wall on each side of the vertebral column
what is the function of kidney
constancy of fluids - homeostasis
regulate volume of blood, maintaining h20 and salts and acid/base balance
what hormones does the kidney produce
renin and erythropoietin
what does renin do
increase blood pressure
what does erythropoietin do
increases RBC production
what vertebral level are the kidneys at
12th thoracic to 3rd lumbar
which kidney is positioned lower and why
right kidney due to presence of liver
the lateral surface of the kidney is ____
and medial surface is _____ in shape
convex and concave
where is the hilus and what structure does it lead into
medial aspect of the concave kidney
leads into renal sinus
what structures enter or leave the hilus
renal veins, arteries, ureter, and lymphatic vessels and nerves
( you cant see the lymphatics or nerves)
remember V A U anterior to posterior vein artery and ureter
what is the fibrous structure directly adhering to the kidney surface
renal capsule
what is the function of the perirenal fat
cushion from external blows
what is the renal fascia of gerota
the outermost layer of dense, fibrous connective tissue
what does the renal fascia of gerota do
anchors the kidney and adrenal glands to surrounding structures
where is the pararenal fat
the outermost layer and adheres to posterior abdominal wall
what is ptosis of the kidney
when kidney falls to a lower than normal position causing the ureter to kink and can cause hydronephrosis (urine to back up in the kidney)
what is hydronephrosis
water in the kidney caused by ptosis
when is ptosis seen
anorexia due to loss of body fat
what is the renal cortex
most superficial region
where is the renal medulla
deep to the cortex, darker and reddish brown in color
what are the cone-shaped tissue masses called
medullary or renal pyramids
where does the broader base of the renal pyramids face
where does the apex of the renal pyramids face
where is the renal pelvis found
lateral to the hilus
found within the sinus
formed by merging calyces
what are the renal columns of bertin
inward extensions of cortical tissue and found btw the pyramids
what is a renal lobe
renal pyramid and adjacent cap of cortical tissue and cortical columns
what are the arteries called located in the renal columns
interlobar arteries
what is the minor calyx
cup shaped area that enclose the papillae of the pyramids and drain into major calyx
what is the major calyx
2 or 3 in number and are branching extensions of the pelvis
where does a drop of urine leaving the renal papilla collected by
minor calyx
the renal papillae are most closely related to the
minor calyces
minor calyces collect urine that continuously drain from
papillae empty into ___
which drain into ____
major calyces
renal pelvis
walls of the calyces and pelvis contain what kind of muscle
smooth muscle and are peristalsis
what is pyelitis
infection of the renal pelvis and calyces
what is pyelonephritis
infection or inflammatory condition that affects the entire kidney
what causes kidney infections and predominately in what gender
fecal bacteria - ecoli
from anal region to the urinary tract
approximately how much of the cardiac output is delivered to the kidneys every minute
one fourth of the total systemic cardiac output
what angle does the renal arteries branch from the abdominal aorta
right angles
at what level does the renal arteries arise
btw L1 and L2
what renal artery is longer
how many segmental arteries
what percent of the blood supply entering the kidneys perfuses the cortex
where are the bulk of the nephrons
what path does the renal veins follow
the arterial pathway but in reverse
what is the path of the blood from the level of the renal artery
renal artery -> segmental -> lobar -> interlobar -> arcuate and interlobular-> afferent arteriole -> glomerulus -> efferent arteriole -> peritubular capillary network
what is the nerve supply of the kidney and ureter
renal plexus and ganglion, branch of the celiac plexus and ganglion
what supplies renal plexus
sympathetic fibers from the least thoracic and first lumbar splanchnic nerves
what do the sympathetic fibers do to renal blood flow and how
they are vasomotor fibers and they regulate renal blood flow by adjusting the diameter of renal arterioles
what is the structural and functional unit of the kidney
how many nephrons per kidney
1 million
where are the majority of the nephrons located
what are the parts of the nephron
dilated renal corpuscle,
proximal convoluted tubule
loops of henle
distal convoluted tubles
what directly supplies the afferent arterioles
interlobular and arcuate arteries
what is the renal corpuscle formed by
glomerulus and bowman's capsule
what is the glomerulus
tuft of capillaries inside the bowman's capsule
where is the bowman's capsule located
at the end of renal tubule
completely surrounding the glomerulus
what feeds the glomerulus
afferent arterioles
what drains the glomerulus
efferent arterioles
what arises from the efferent arterioles and are adapted for absorption of solutes and h20
peritubular capillaries
what level are the ureters found
what is the continuation of the renal pelvis
what is the path of the ureter
descend behind the peritoneum to base of bladder
turns medially
then runs oblique thru posterior bladder wall
what are the 3 sites of constriction of the ureter
uteropelvic junction - near hilus
where they cross the iliac vessels - pelvic brim
where they join the bladder
what does the mucosa of the ureter wall look like
highly convoluted with a thick transitional epithelium continuous with that of the kidney pelvis and urinary bladder
what does the muscularis of the bladder look like
inner longitudinal
and outer circular
what is the adventitia
fibrous connective tissue covering
what causes the muscularis to contract
what controls the vigor and frequency of the peristaltic waves of muscularis
rate of urine formation
what is composition of kidney stones
magnesium or
uric acid
what is another name for kidney stones
renal calculi
where do stones precipitate
in renal pelvis
what structures do stones usually block
ureter and prevent urine passage
what causes stone formation
frequent bladder infections of urinary tract and retention of urine
also high blood calcium and alkaline urine
how do you prevent stone development
acidifying urine by cranberry juice and ingesting large amounts of water to dilute the urine
where is the bladder located
retroperitoneally on the pelvic floor just posterior to the pubic symphysis
what lies anterior to the vagina and uterus
what lies anterior to the rectum and superior to the prostate gland
what kind of cells make up the mucosa of the bladder wall
transitional epithelium
what is the thick muscular layer of the bladder wall
detrusor muscle - consists of intermediate smooth muscle fibers arranged in inner and outer longitudinal layers and a middle circular layer
what is the adventitia
fibrous layer that covers the bladder except on the superior surface
the interior part of the bladder has three openings
both ureters and the urethra
the smooth triangular region of the bladder base btw the 3 openings is called
btw the 2 openings of the ureters is the
interuteric crest
the thick walls of the bladder when empty are thrown into folds called
what is the normal capacity of bladder
when full bladder can be palpated above what structure
pubic symphysis
the stretching of the bladder wall serves as a trigger for
micturation or voiding
the mucosal lining of the ureters are composed of
pseudostratified columnar epithelium but near the bladder it is transitional epithelium
near its opening the urethra has
stratified squamous, nonkeritinized epithelium
where is the internal urethral sphincter found
at the junction of the bladder and urethra
what is the function of the internal urethral sphincter
keeps urethra closed when urine not being passed (is involuntary)
prevents leaking of urine btw voiding
what opens the internal urethral sphincter
pelvic splanchnic n
what closes the internal urethral sphincter
sacral splanchnic n
where is the external urethral sphincter found
surrounds the urethra as it passes thru urogenital diaphragm
what kind of muscle is external urethral sphincter
skeletal muscle and is voluntary
what controls the external urethral sphincter
S2 3 4
branches of the pudendal nerve
what other muscles also aid in the constriction of the urethra
levator ani of the pelvic floor
where does the external urethral orifice lie in the female
anterior to the vaginal opening and posterior to the clitoris
how long is the urethra in the male
8 inches
what are the three regions of the male urethra
prostatic urethra (passes thru prostate)
membranous urethra (runs thru urogenital diaphragm)
spongy (penile) urethra - passes thru penis and opens at its tip via external urethral orifice
male urethra also carries what
semen out of the body
what is urethritis
inflammation of the urethra
what is cystitis
bladder inflammation
what are symptoms of UTI
dysuria - painful urination
urinary frequency or urgency
fever and sometimes cloudy or bloody urine