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70 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
normal pH, PCO2, O2sat
7.4, 40, 98
anion gap calculation
Na-(Cl + HCO3) = 12+/-2
methanol, uremia, DKA, paraldehyde, isoniazid, lactate, ethylene glycol, salicylate
Fanconi's syndrome
genearlized disorder of proximal tubule transport giving you excessive urinary loosses of bicarb, amino acids, small proteins, glucose, electrolytes, and water.
most common cause of ARF in toddlers
E. coli O157:H7 can cause what renal complication
HUS 2/2 E. coli after eating at fast food restaraunt
management for ARF
either volume overload (Normal saline) or volume deplete (diuretic adn nitrate) based on pts clinical status
why is renal osteodystrophy (muscle weakness, bone pain, growth retardation) a complicatoin of CRF
b/c cannot excrete phosphate, XS phosphate -> XS PTH -> fibrosis of bone marrow space (osteitis fibrosis cystica)
most common renal tumor in children < 15yo
sxs: age<3 yo, abdominal/flank mass, emesis, HTN 2/2 renal artery obstruction
Wilm's tumor
dx: US and CT
proteinuria, pitting edema, hyperlipidemia, periorbital edema, oliguria, adn anasarca
nephrotic syndrome
At birth, infant wiht renal insufficiency or HTN and bilateral flank masses. also oligohydraminos, Potter's syndrome, and pulmonary hypoplasia
Autosomal R PKD (cysts also in liver, cirrhoiss, and portal HTN)
dx: US of kidneys->enlarged and hyperechogenic.
tx: supportive. dialsysi adn renal transplant.
how long after a step infection could one get PSGN
10-14 days
epithelial deposits of immune complexes on epithelial side of the GBM
dx; increased ASO and low serum complement level
tx: penicillin for 10 days, dialysis for renal or cardiac failure,
walks up and down stairs, runs, kicks a ball
2 years
pincer grasp, crawls, cruises, mama/dad, bye-bye
9 months
head up prone, social smile, vocalizes, eyes follow objet to midline
2 months
what is activated charcoal used for?
to help pass toxic substances out of the body
inheritance pattern of achondroplasia
AD: short trunks and limbs, macrocephaly with frontal bossing. sometimes prone to hydrocephalus
in children < 2y/o who are exposed to Hep A via household contact should get.
Hep A Ig within 2 wks of expsoure. Hep A vaccine would take too long and not used in kids < 2y/o
what can blunt abdominal trauma cause in a kid?
acute pancreatitis: HIGH amylase and lipase
progressive motor weakness, preceded by days of constipation in a infant.
presentation of botulism in infants
neurologic complication of Lyme Disease
Bell's palsy, but not generalized neruologic manifestations
complciation of closed head injury or concussion
amnesia: retrograde and/or anterograde
most common complication of AZT in newborns
anemia 2/2 bone marrow suppression
most common causes of neonatal meningitis
L. monoctyogenes, E. coli, Group B strep, and Klebsiella
allergic rhinitis clinical picture
allergic gape (open-mouth breathing) and allergic shiners (dark circles under eyes). watery dishcarge, nonerythematous
what causes chemical conjunctivitis in the neonate
silver nitrate, resolves by 36 hours
what heart abnormality can happen in pts with NF type I
hypertension 2/2 due to infectious process of renovascular htn
how much nutrtion in cow's milk
20kCal/ounce. energy requirement: 100kCal/kg
ascending paralysis with diminished DTRs
Guillian-Barre syndrome: complications-respiratory distress and autonoic dysfunctiom (HTN, tachypnea, arythmia, hypotension)
what bacteria can cause seizures and bloody diarrhea in children
Shigella: GNR that can cause fever, HA, watery diarrhea (c or s D), cramps, tenesmus, seizures, lethargy,
complication seen as a result of meningitis in kids..hint: it affects the kidney
SIADH within 24-48 hrs: water reabsorption -> dilution of electrolytes -> kidney excretes Na -> pt becomes hyponatremic -> SEIZURES
progressive weakness: hypotonia, generalized weakness, small muscle mass, absent DTRs, and tongue atrophy and fasiculations
spinal muscular atrophy: w/u-DNA testing for mutation, muslce biopsy, and EMG
chronic otitis media, seborrheic dermatitis, and rash on trunk
langerhan's cell histiocytosis, assoc with skeletal involvement most of the time
what is common in all forms of rickets
alkaline phosphatase: since osteoblasts are stimulatd to build bone they release a large amount of alk phos in the process
presentation of syphillis in a newborn
snuffles (nasal ddishcharge), HSM, or a papulosquamous rash --> draw an RPR on the baby
congenital syphillis
anemai, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia
secondary drowning
occurs after initial immersion injury and leads to coma or death 24 hrs later, after a presumed recovery
most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism
abnormal development of thyroid gland
susceptiblity to encapsulated organisms (S. pneumonia, h. influenz, n. meningitids) occurs in boys around 6 mo of ag
x-linked agammaglobulinemia
atopc dermatitis and thromcotyopenia
wiskott-aldrich: x-linked (t and b cell)
cutaneous infections, deep skin abscesses, recurrent lymphadenitits
CGD; x-linked
partial albinism, photophobia, nystagmus
chediak-higashi (AR): disorder of phagocytosis
newborns with delayed umbilical cord separation. skin adn subcut infectiosn with poor wound ehaling
leukocyte adhesion defect
in an infant who is jaundiced at 2 kwks with a high direct >2mg/dL, what are you worried about
other path besides simple breastmilk jaundice. you worry about biliary atresia, intrinsic liver disease.
gross hematuria, edema, and HTN in a boy between 4 and 14 years of age, with a recent sore throat (strep throat or skin infection) 7-14 DAYS PRIOR
postinfectious glomerulonephritis 2/2 GABH Strep throat or skin infection.
what does PSGN have that IgA nephropathy typically not have
edema and HTN
Hypsarrhythmia: diffuse, high voltage slow waves and multipel spike-and-wave-discharges
infantile spasms' EEG presentation: recurrent flexion-extension seizure episodes between 2-7 months. can occur multiple times/day. ACTH can be helpful.
can lift head off talbe, follow objects pass midline, recognize parents, smile when engaged
at 2 months
walk up adn down steps, turn book pages one at a time, understand 2-step commands, parallel play
24 mo
roll over, sti well with support, move arms in unison while grasping object, regard environment with excitement
4 mo
walk independtly, pincer grasp, couple more words than mama adn dada, imitate actions
12 mo
sit well without support, transfer objects btwn hands, raking rasp, babbly, recognize strangers
craw adn creep begin to pull up to stand, pincre grasp, understands "no"
9 mo
run, turn 2-3 pgages a ta time, begins to feed self with spoon,s ay 10-20 words, imitate parents actions
18 mo
treatment of TSS caused by staph
IV nafcillin
when can a child face the front in a baby car seat
when the child is 12 months AND 20 lbs
what elecectrolyte abnormality accompanies rhabdomyolysis
hypocalcemia: 2/2 hyperphosphatemia -> decreasd release of Ca from bone (increased phosphate leads to decreased PTH -> decreasedCa released from bone)
boys>girls, insidous edema, heavy proteinuria, minimual hematuria, hyperlipiedemia, adn occasiaonal HTN
Minimal change disease (nephrotic syndrome)
pyloric stenosis can cause
nonbillous projectile vomiting, decreased stooling, dehydration, and metabolic alkalosis (2/2 vomitiing). one can see gastric peristaltic waves and feel the "olive" sign
when does pyloric stenosis typically present
3-8 wks of age
what kind of joints affected in rheumatic fever
large joints
what kind of joints affected in SLE
small joints (wrists, elbows,shoulders)
joint description in JRA
swollen, warm, painful with active motion.
what do breast milk jaundice, Gilbert's Syndrome, crigler-najarr syndrome, and cong spherocytosis have in common
they cause INDIRECT hyperbilirubinemia
an infant with microcytic anemia and a normal RDW..hint: Greek ancestry
think Hemophilia: due Hgb electrophoresis
manifestations of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
short stature/growth retardation and goiter. Hashimotot's is an autoimmune disease: primary hypothyroidism
what 3 malignancies is ebv assoc with
Burkitt's Lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and Hodgkin's disease
fever, abdominal pain, and vaginal discharge in an adolescent with high risk sexual behavior
PID: C. trachomatis or N. gonorrrhea
hyperpigmented macules in the axilla
pathognomonic for segmental neurofibromatosis: NF limited to 1 dermatome
should you be worreid if you see microcopic hematuria w/o proteinuria
not really, it may be familial bening essential hematuria.