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38 Cards in this Set

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1) Ingestion of 1 liter of pure water would result in which of the following conditions:
A. hyperosmotic dehydration
B. hypoosmotic dehydration
C. isoosmotic overhydration
D. hypoosmotic overhydration
E. hyperosmotic overhydration
D. hypoosmotic overhydration
2) The reabsorption of glucose and the secretion of PAH are similar in that:
A. both require a Na+ gradient established by a Na+ / K+ ATPase
B. both occur primarily within the distal convoluted tubule
C. the transport rates for both are always 50% of the filtered load
D. the excretion rates of both decrease with an increase in filtered load
E. both are examples of paracellular transport
A. both require a Na+ gradient established by a Na+ / K+ ATPase
3) Molecules which do not normally pass through the renal filter are:
A. negatively charged ions
B. positively charged ions
C. neutral amino acids
D. glucose
E. large proteins
E. large proteins
4) ADH secretion will be stimulated by which of the following:
A. drinking a liter of pure water
B. infusing an intravenous solution of isotonic NaCl
C. profuse sweating, followed by drinking pure water
D. profuse sweating, without drinking additional water
E. drinking a liter of isotonic solution
D. profuse sweating, without drinking additional water
5) A solution that is iso-osmotic compared to plasma is:
A. 300 mM urea
B. 75 mM NaCl and 200 mM urea
C. 150 mM glucose
D. 150 mM NaCl and 150 mM urea
E. 100 mM NaHCO3
A. 300 mM urea
6) Normally, all of the nutrients (glucose, amino acids) are reabsorbed in which tubular segment:
A. Bowman’s capsule
B. proximal tubule
C. thin loop of Henle
D. distal convoluted tubule
E. collecting duct
B. proximal tubule
7) The tubular segment that receives fluid from more than one nephron is the:
A. glomerulus
B. proximal tubule
C. collecting duct
D. distal convoluted tubule
E. thick ascending loop of Henle
C. collecting duct
8) An individual has a plasma [urea] of 15 mg/dL. If her GFR then decreases by 50%, what will
happen to her plasma [urea] ? (Assume that there are no changes in the rate at which she produces urea.)
A. plasma [urea] will initially rise, then return to the previous value of 15 mg/dL
B. rise to a new, higher value and remain at that value until GFR changes again
C. decrease to a new, lower value and remain at that value until GFR changes again
D. initially decrease, then return to the previous value of 15 mg/dL
E. remain the same (15 mg/dL)
B. rise to a new, higher value and remain at that value until GFR changes again
9) In describing the renal response to an acid load, “titratable acid” refers to acid that:
A. combines with filtered HCO3- to form carbonic acid
B. combines with plasma HCO3- to form carbonic acid
C. combines with filtered HPO4-2 to form H 2PO4-
D. is formed from glutamine
E. uses a Na+ / cotransporter
C. combines with filtered HPO4-2 to form H 2PO4-
10) A child has a prolonged illness, during which she lost 1 liter of fluid in diarrhea. This fluid had an osmolality of 200 mosm/L. What result would this fluid loss have on the child?
A. her plasma osmolality would be lower than normal
B. her ICF volume would be lower than normal
C. her ECF volume would be decreased by more than 1 liter
D. her ICF osmolality would be greater than her ECF osmolality
E. her ECF osmolality would be increased but her ICF osmolality would decrease
B. her ICF volume would be lower than normal
11) In the presence of ADH, which tubular segment will have fluid that is hyperosmotic?
A. proximal tubule
B. descending thin loop of Henle
C. thick ascending loop of Henle
D. distal convoluted tubule
E. collecting duct
E. collecting duct & B. descending thin loop of Henle
12) If an individual on a high protein diet has already exceeded the buffering capacity of the
phosphate buffers in the urine, the additional acid will be secreted primarily as:
A. free H+
B. ammonium
C. carbonic acid
D. glutamine
E. CO2
B. ammonium
13) The stimulus that initiates the tubuloglomerular reflex is the:
A. electrolyte content of tubular fluid flowing by macula densa cells
B. osmolality of plasma near hypothalamus neurons
C. amount of stretch of the smooth muscle cells in the renal artery
D. amount of stretch of the carotid sinus baroreceptors
E. amount of stretch of the myocardial cells of the atrium
A. electrolyte content of tubular fluid flowing by macula densa cells
14) A molecule of H+ lost from the body via the GI tract (as during vomiting):
A. can combine with HCO3
- in the body to form CO2 and H2O
B. is equivalent to adding one molecule of HCO3- to the body
C. is compensated for by renal secretion of one H+ molecule
D. is compensated for by renal reabsorption of one HCO3
- molecule
E. is buffered in plasma by the formation of CO2 and H2O
B. is equivalent to adding one molecule of HCO3- to the body
15) In the peritubular capillaries:
A. oncotic pressure is usually lower than the oncotic pressure in the glomerular
capillaries
B. hydrostatic pressure is unchanged if efferent arterioles vasoconstrict
C. filtration is favored near the efferent arteriole, but reabsorption is favored near the
venule
D. hydrostatic pressure is always lower than hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular
capillaries
E. filtration is favored except during extreme hypovolemic conditions
D. hydrostatic pressure is always lower than hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular
capillaries
16) The clearance of a substance that is reabsorbed by the tubular cells:
A. can exceed the RPF if the transporters become saturated
B. can never be greater than the GFR
C. does not change with increasing filtered load of the substance
D. has units of mg/min
E. is always equal to the filtered load of the substance
B. can never be greater than the GFR
17) An iso-osmotic increase in ECF will result from an increased rate of Na+ reabsorption in which tubular segment?
A. proximal tubule
B. distal convoluted tubule
C. thick ascending loop of Henle
D. thin descending loop of Henle
E. collecting duct in the absence of ADH
A. proximal tubule
18) Which of the following would increase the rate of Na+ excretion?
A. decreased GFR
B. increased secretion of aldosterone
C. increased level of sympathetic nerve activity
D. increased ECF volume
E. increased secretion of ADH
D. increased ECF volume
19) Multiplying the plasma concentration of a solute times the GFR always gives you the:
A. clearance of the solute
B. renal threshold for that solute
C. transport maximum for that solute
D. excreted load of that solute
E. filtered load of that solute
E. filtered load of that solute
20) The macula densa is located btwn what two regions?
TALH and CCD
21) What region that is always impermeable to
Na+, regardless of the hormones present?
DTLH
22) A man has the following values for Na+.
Dietary intake of Na+ 434 mmol/day
GFR 180 L/day
Plasma [Na+] 140 mmol/L
Assuming that he is in steady state balance for Na+ (his excretion rate = his intake rate), what fraction of Na+ is reabsorbed by the kidney?
A. 98.3 %
B. 99.6 %
C. 32.2 %
D. 100 %
E. 50 %
A. 98.3 %
23) A special dye is used to measure fluid volume. The properties of this dye are that:
• it is injected intravenously,
• it does not enter blood cells
• it does not escape from blood vessels.
The volume you can measure with this dye is:
A. plasma volume
B. ICF volume
C. blood volume
D. ICF + ISF volume
E. ECF volume
A. plasma volume
24) Using the same dye above, you inject 100 mg intravenously, wait a short time for complete
mixing, then withdraw a sample of fluid. The fluid concentration is 25 g/ml. The volume of this
fluid compartment is:
A. 40 L
B. 4 L
C. 25 L
D. 2.5 L
E. 10 L
B. 4 L
25) Blood in the efferent arteriole of the kidney will flow next and directly into the:
A. glomerular capillaries
B. peritubular capillaries
C. minor calyx
D. interlobular vein
E. interlobar vein
B. peritubular capillaries
26) The mechanism for bicarbonate reabsorption in the renal tubules requires all of the
following EXCEPT:
A. intracellular carbonic anhydrase
B. diffusion of CO2 from the lumen into the cell
C. apical membrane transporter for H+
D. apical membrane transporter for HCO3-
E. carbonic anhydrase on the apical cell membrane
D. apical membrane transporter for HCO3-
27) A woman has a Tm for glucose of 350 mg/min. This means that:
A. her plasma glucose concentration cannot exceed 350 mg/liter
B. her urine glucose concentration cannot exceed 350 mg/liter
C. if her glucose filtered load exceeds 350 mg/min she will excrete glucose
D. the clearance of glucose is 350 ml/min
E. the difference between the GFR and the urine excretion rate is 350 mg/min
C. if her glucose filtered load exceeds 350 mg/min she will excrete glucose
28) Aldosterone directly stimulates:

A. water reabsorption in proximal tubule cells
B. Na+ reabsorption in collecting duct cells
C. Na+ secretion in collecting duct cells
D. both water and Na+ reabsorption by thin loop of Henle cells
E. Na+ reabsorption in all renal tubule cells
B. Na+ reabsorption in collecting duct cells
31) Na+ reabsorption in which tubular segment has the greatest effect on the development of the
hyperosmotic medullary interstitial gradient?

A. proximal tubule
B. distal convoluted tubule
C. Collecting duct
D. ascending thin loop of Henle
E. thick ascending loop of Henle
E. thick ascending loop of Henle
32) The tubular segment which has a relatively long length in juxtamedullary nephrons, and a
short length in cortical nephrons, is the:

A. proximal tubule
B. distal convoluted tubule
C. loop of Henle
D. connecting tubule
E. Bowman’s capsule
C. loop of Henle
33) An individual has the following measures:
GFR = 100 ml/min
RPF = 600 ml/min
Clearance of X = 150 ml/min
Assuming that X is freely filtered, it is most likely that X is:

A. neither reabsorbed nor secreted
B. partly, but not entirely, secreted
C. partly, but not entirely reabsorbed
D. entirely reabsorbed
E. entirely secreted
B. partly, but not entirely, secreted
34) Which of the following is a correct comparison of body fluid compartments?

A. plasma volume is greater than ISF volume
B. ICF volume is greater than ISF volume
C. ECF volume is greater than ICF volume
D. ISF volume is greater than ECF volume
E. plasma volume is greater than blood volume
B. ICF volume is greater than ISF volume
35) Mr. Smith’s patient chart provides the following information:
pH Arterial CO2 Arterial [HCO3-]
7.1 70 mm Hg 36 mM
Your tentative diagnosis is:

A. uncompensated respiratory acidosis
B. respiratory acidosis with renal compensation
C. metabolic acidosis with renal compensation
D. uncompensated metabolic acidosis
E. metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation
B. respiratory acidosis with renal compensation
36) Severe blood loss (hemorrhage) would result in an increase in all EXCEPT which of the
following:

A. ANP
B. renin
C. angiotensin II
D. aldosterone
E. ADH (vasopressin)
A. ANP
37) Given the following blood and urine values for inulin:
Plasma [inulin] Urine [inulin] Urine flow rate
85 mg/dL 4500 mg/dl 2.3 ml/min
What is the clearance of inulin?

A. 104 ml/min
B. 43 ml/min
C. 122 ml/min
D. 199 ml/min
E. 170 ml/min
C. 122 ml/min
38) The clearance of creatinine is a good estimate of the:

A. renal plasma flow
B. renal blood flow
C. GFR
D. clearance of urea
E. clearance of glucose
C. GFR
39) The cells that secrete renin are the:

A. macula densa cells
B. podocytes
C. juxtaglomerular cells
D. mesangial cells
E. capillary endothelium
C. juxtaglomerular cells
40) The primary effect of a drug is to vasodilate the afferent arterioles. This will increase GFR
due to the:

A. increased hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular capillary
B. reduced renal plasma flow
C. decreased hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular capillary
D. alteration in plasma oncotic pressure
E. increased hydrostatic pressure within Bowman’s space
A. increased hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular capillary