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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
normal size of dog and cat kidneys
dog= 2.5 -3.5 L2
cat= 1.9-3 L2 (early neutered cats will have smaller kidneys)
what is the best lateral view for the kidneys in small animals?
right lateral, better seperation of kidneys
name the clinical indications for excretory urography
1.kidney dz; pyelonephritis, hydronephrosis
2.nonvisualtization of kidneys
3.prior to a nephrectomy
4.evaluation of retroperitoneal space
5.abdominal mass evaluation
6.ectopic ureter
excretory urography is contraindicated when?
dehydrated patient
excretory urography limitations
qualitative not quantitative
-need to increase contrast dose if BUN is high
-serum creatinine levels greater than or equal to 3.5mg/dl often result in non diagnostic studies
define the first phase of the excretory urogram
vascular nephrogram phase occurs 5-20sec post injection. cortex will be more opaque than medulla
define the second phase of the excretory urogram
tubular nephrogram phase
occurs 1-2min post injection. homogenous opacification of the entire kidney
define the third phase of the excretory urogram
pyelogram phase occurs 5-20min post injection. result of water reabsorption in the renal tubules. can see size and shape of pelvis and ureters
results of a normal excretory urogram
normal size and shape of kidneys
nephrogram phase-smoothly homogenous opacification
pelvic diverticulae less than 1-2mm
proximal ureter less than 3-4mm
peristalic activity in the proximal ureter
differentials for large kidney with normal shape and smooth margins
compensatory hypertrophy
infiltrative neoplasia
acute inflammation
renal amyloidosis
dioctophyma renale
differentials for large kidney with abnormally shaped and irregular margination
primary neoplasia
metastatic neoplasia
infiltrative neoplasia
differentials for normal size and shape kidney
normal kidneys
acute pyelonephritis
early renal dz
differentials for small kidneys with normal shape
end stage renal failure
chronic pyelonephritis
renal dysplasia
renal infarcts