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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
besides increasting Na excretion, ANP...
increases GFR
what secretes EPO?
endothelial cells of peritubular capillaries
Besides vasoconstriction and aldo, Angiotensin II....
releases ADH
increases thirst
what happens to Na concentration along the PT?
stays constant
what part of the nephron secretes ammonia?
PT
where on the nephron does PTH act?
DCT
threshold for glycosuria?
200
what does plasma protein do to GFR and FF?
decreases
Inulin is used to measure
GFR
extracellular volume
how do you measure plasma volume?
Evan's blue
Formula for FENa?
U/P Na divided by U/P Creatinine
what promotes H secretion?
aldo
constriction of afferent arteriole leads to absorption of ___________
Na and bicarb
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation?
pH = pKa + log bicarb/(0.03 PCO2)
what are Kussmaul respirations?
increased rate and volume
RTA Type 1?
impaired excretion of titratable acid and NH4
RTA Type 2?
increased bicarb loss
RTA Type 3?
hypoaldo
hyperkalemia and poor excretion of NH4
Differential for respiratory alkalosis?
hyperventilation
early aspirin ingestion
gram negative sepsis
Differential for metabolic alkalosis?
vomiting
diuretics (contraction alkalosis)
antacids
hyperaldo
Cushing's syndrome
What is Winter's formula? What is it for?
metabolic acidosis

PCO2 = 1.5(bicarb) + 8 +/- 2
compensation for metabolic alkalosis?
PCO2 increases 0.7 for every 1 mEq bicarb
acute compensation for respiratory acidosis?
chronic?
1 mEq increase in bicarb for every 10 increase in PCO2
3.5 increase in bicarb for every 10
acute compensation for respiratory alkalosis?
chronic?
2 mEq decrease in bicarb for every 10 drop in PCO2
5 decrease in bicarb for evey 10 drop in PCO2
horseshoe kidney gets stuck under the __________
IMA
granular casts signify...
ATN
RBC casts indicate
glomerular inflammation
ischemia
malignant HTN
pyuria and hematura, but not white cell casts?
cystitis
(casts indicate renal origin)
what is the nephritic syndrome?
hematuria
HTN
oliguria
azotemia
peripheral and periorbital edema?
acute post-strep GN
the nephrotic syndrome
ANCA positive GN?
RPGN (crescentic)
Type I and II membranoproliferative GN?
Type I: subendothelial deposits
Type II: dense deposits in GBM
subendothelial humps, tram track?
membranoproliferative GN
slow progression to renal failure?
membranoproliferative GN
mild, post-infectious?
IgA nephropathy
lumpy bumpy, granular, subepithelial humps?
acute post-strep GN
periphery of glomerulus, PAS+?
Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules in diabetes
GN characteristic of HIV and IV drug abusers?
FSGS
basement membrane thickening?
membranous GN
diabetic nephropathy
membrane thickening,
subepithelial spike and dome?
membranous GN
PAS + electron dense deposits
renal vein thrombosis
teenagers, young adults?
membranous GN
strong negative birefringence?
uric acid stones
yellow brown hexagonal cystals?
cystine stones
secondary polycythemia?
RCC
APKD
WAGR complex?
presents with Wilm's tumor
Wilm's tumor
Aniridia
Genitourinary
mental/motor Retardation
sparing of the glomeruli/vessels?
pyelonephritis
corticomedullary scarring
thyroidization of the kidney?
pyelonephritis
causes of diffuse cortical necrosis?
obstetic catastrophies
septic shock
flea-bitten kidney?
TTP/HUS
causes of ATN?
renal ischemia
crush injury
toxins(ethylene glycol)
metabolic __________ occurs with acute renal failure
acidosis
(less excretion of acid, less generation of bicarb)
acute renal failure is due to _________
chronic renal failure is due to ___________ and __________
hypoxia
HTN and diabetes
what electrolyte disturbances cause arrhythmias?
low or high K
low Mg
what electrolyte disturbances cause neuromuscular irritability?
low Ca or Mg
when does low serum Cl- occur?
secondary to metabolic alkalosis
high levels of what causes delerium?
Na
Ca
Mg
high ________ causes metastatic calcification and renal stones.
PO4
high ___________ causes decreased DTRs and cardiopulmonary arrest
Mg
death during initial oliguric phase?
ATN
polygonal clear cells?
RCC
paraneoplastic syndromes of RCC?
EPO
ACTH
PTHrP
prolactin
which kidney stones are radiopaque?
calcium and struvite
anti-DNase B, anti-cationic protease?
Acute post-strep GN
normal anion gap acidosis?
diarrhea
RTA
glue sniffing
hyperchloremia
what are Kussmaul respirations for?
DKA
what happens in a mixed alkalosis or acidosis?
bicarb is as predicted
PCO2 is opposite of what you would expect
what secretes renin?
JG cells
what is an approximate measure of GFR?
creatinine clearance
negative charge barrier in the glomerulus?
heparan sulfate
ureter passes posterior to the ....
ductus in males, uterine a. in females
which arteries supply the glomeruli?
interlobular
everything but collecting system forms form what mesoderm?
metanephric
urinary tract analgesic that turns urine orange-red?
phenazopyridine