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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Three main functions of kidney
1. Regulate the volume and composition of the extracellular fluid
2. Excrete metabolic waste products, end products of hemoglobin breakdown and foreign chemicals
3. Produce circulating factors (erythropoietin, renin, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3
Functional Organization of the kidney
nephrons, collecting ducts, pyramids, papillae, calyces, pelvis kidney, ureter
urine flow
Blood supply of kidney
renal arter, interlobular artery, arcuate artery, interlobular artery, afferent arterioles, glomerulus capillaries, efferent arteriole, pertitubular capillaries (cortex) or vasa recta (juxtamedullary region), venules, veins
Nephron consits of
renal corpuscle and tubule
Renal corpuscle contains
glomerus and fluid fluid capsule called Bowman's capsule
When blood enters glomerulus
fraction is fultered into Bowman'space as ultrafiltrate

fraction goes to efferent arterioles
Corticle nephrons have ___ tubular systems
short (They make up 80% OF nephrons)
Juxtamedullary nephrons have ___corpuscles
larger with longer descending and ascending loops of Henle in parallel with vasa recta
Filtration barrier of glomerulus through which plasma which pass
capillary endothelium with fenestrations (70nm), basement membrane (300-350 nm thick of negatively charged glycoproteins), epithelial viscleral layer of Bowmans capsule with podycytes and filtration slits (4-14nm).
Requirements to pass filter
1.8<x<3.6nm, cationic molecules

occasionally albumin does pass
the segment that drains Bowman's capsule
proximal tubule - reabsorbs solutes and water
Loop of Henle
Consist of descending limb coming from proximal tubule and ascending limb.
Responsible for the mechanism of concentration and dilution of the urine
Place where final composition of urine is achieved through action of certain hormones
distal tubule adn the collecting duct
Juxtaglomerular apparatus
macular densa and juxtaglomerular cells
juxtaglomerular cells secrete
Nerve supply of kidney
Has a rich sympathetic innervation particular of the arteriolar smooth muscle and tubulr system.

NO parasympathetic innervation
Kidneys receive this volume of blood/min which is this percentage of cardiac output
1200ml of blood/min and 25% of CO
Percentage blood filtered as compared to that that enters efferent arterioles
20% to 80%
Amount excreted =
Ex = Fx+Sx-Rx
Filtered load =
Fx = Px GFR
Amount excreted
Ex = Ux V
If Ex<Fx
net reabsoprtion of X by the tubules
X was secreted by the tubules
Renal Clearance
Cx=(Ux V)/Px
The A-V O2 difference in kidney is
Low because the blood flow is high relative to the metabolic needs
THe O2 consuumption per unit gram is high because
THe high expenditure of energy required to reabsorb filtered Na+.
Passage of urine into bladder
Periodic contraction in smooth musculature of calyces and pelvis, perstaltic waves at ureters, ureters enter bladder at the trigonum forming oblique valvular orifices, bladder has rugae that distends as fills.
Muscular coat of bladder rugae
Outer longitudinal, inner circular, thinner inner.
At the base of bladder, middle muscular layer is midified into
internal sphincter
External urethral spincter has this type of muscle
striated muscle
Innervation of bladder and internal sphincter
Sacral parasympathetic pelvic nerves (nervi erigentes) which synapse with postganglionic neurons in the bladder, postganglionic sympathetic fibers emerging from the hypogastric ganglia.
Sympathetic nerve stimulation does this
relaxes bladder and contracts internal sphincter
Parasympathetic activity does this
Contracts bladder and relaxes sphincter
This innervates teh external sphincter
sacral pudendal nerves
Emptying of bladder is initiated by
relaxation of the external sphincter
Stretch receptors on bladder does this
When reaches 400ml ormore of urine, sthey excite the parasympatheic outflow increasing the tone of the bladder and relaxing hte sphincter increasing desire to urinate.
Impules also reache higher in the brain.